Abstract: Cultural understanding of sexuality is based on the ideas of behavior and attitudes of men and women in a society. Throughout the ages, male body has been cited as aggressive and women’s sexuality is seen as a response to that aggressive male desire, which later on described as a natural phenomenon. Therefore, from social to psychology, most of the critics believe that sexuality is a social constructed. Every age has its specific ideology of being a man; like, Masculinity in 3000 B.C. was defined by the valour and courage, Medieval masculinity was essentially based on Christianity and chivalric, Victorian masculine ideology was marked with responsible, well behaved, domestic, protective and breadwinners of family, Modern masculinity
Tyson writes that patriarchy is “sexist, which promotes the belief that women are innately inferior to men” (85). Although feminist don’t deny the biological differences, Tyson inserts, they do not agree that “physical, size, shape, and body chemistry make men naturally superior to women” (86). Tyson states that feminists argue mostly about the traditional gender roles that link to patriarchy casting “men as rational, strong, protective, and decisive” and “women as emotional (irrational), weak, nurturing, and submissive” (85). The patriarchal concept of femininity is linked “to frailty, modesty, and timidity” that “disempowers women in the real world” according to Tyson (88). A patriarchal woman is “a woman who has internalized the norms and the values of patriarchy” (85).
To begin, masculinity is a central trait through which men try to compensate for their race and class subordination. Men use masculinity in an attempt to acquire social status and avoid being subordinated. However, among delinquent boys, masculinity is formed through negative encounters with probation officer, the police, juvenile hall, and school discipline. On the other hand, masculinities are also shaped positively by authority figures in the appropriate circumstances. Manhood is also accomplished through the subordination of women and through culture.
In Allan G. Johnson’s article, Patriarchy, The System he states that “manhood and masculinity [are] most closely associated with being human and womanhood and femininity [are] relegated to the marginal position of ‘other’” (74). This demonstrates how, in our own society as well as Hall’s post-apocalyptic society, men view women as objects, as others, and therefore, do not need to see their issues or acknowledge them at all. Through male privilege, men see women’s issues as less important; thus, disregarding woman’s emotions and experiences. Similar to Andrew, our patriarchal society believes there is much more important issues at hand than feminist
The term gender will be used henceforth. Freed (2003:704) criticizes the division of people into the categories of women and men, females and males. For example, transsexuals and intersexuals are to some extent excluded from these categorisations (Freed 2003:715). Feminist theorists borrowed this term to refer to social behaviour which is not biologically innate but sociologically acquired. There is a
“Masculinity and femininity are essentially coercive categories that straitjacket men and women” (Nayar 83). Gender discourse is always a practice of power, where masculinity is always associated with authority and superiority while femininity
Hartmann defines patriarchy as “a set of social relations between men, which have a material base, and which, though hierarchical, establish or create interdependence or solidarity among men that enable them to dominate women”. Therefore Marxist feminists argue that because the male is often the one going out to work and earning money to support the family that he has total economic control over his wife and children (family) which can negatively affect the family as he would be able to manipulate his family as he liked as he would be the one in control. Women are therefore denied financial independence in the patriarchal family
He goes into detail of the theory that women are only used for sexual reproduction that denotes their ability to be self determined and their probability of female autonomy. Ford goes on to discuss the scrutiny that Wollstonecraft faced during the 1970’s. After the 1970’s, Wollstonecraft was reappraised with the second wave in 1994. Susan Gubar and others accepted Wollstonecraft as a vital source as the founder of feminism. With Wollstonecraft’s work “Vindications of the Rights of Woman,” explained as “the founding feminist text in English.” In his 16 page excerpt of Wollstonecraft, he goes over the scrutinies, the appraisals and the great work that was written over the years.
Radical feminism, its building on the notion of gender domination and repression, it has a distinctive conception of the organization and offers an alternative organizational form. As a results it has attracted particular attention in social welfare administration. Acker (1990) proposed that organizations are inherently gendered. They produce male domination through, (a) division along gender lines, (b) construction of symbols and images that explain and reinforce these division, (c) interaction between men and women including patterns of dominance, (d) production of gendered components of personal identity and expression in ongoing social
According to the World Reference dictionary, a hierarchy is a “system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to a certain status or authority, in this topic talking about patriarchal society”.. Problem is, women have been deprioritized or have been given an inferior position in society due to these sexual differences. “Sex” is a word that refers to the biological differences between male and female: the visible difference in genitalia, the related difference in the procreation function, which is obvious. But “gender” however is a matter of culture, it refers to the biological classification between masculine and feminine. There also exists a dispute that has been divided into two groups; minimizers and maximizers.