The truth regarding the gender pay gap is that it affects females from different backgrounds, ages, races and educational levels. This ongoing issue does not seem likely to go away on its own. Women, who are as equally trained and educated, with the same experience as men are not getting equal pay. In today’s society, stereotypes are generated concerning women’s capabilities and this result in discrimination. Gender discrimination in work circumstances takes on many different forms; ranging from different payments between men and women who perform the same duties equally as well as when the income of men and women and retirement savings are stacked up against their health care cost and life expectancies, women are much farther behind than men are.
Women and men are inclined to work in separate occupations. From one viewpoint, women and men usually dominate in diverse industries but then, in the same industry or corporation, women tend to dominate in lower positions and wages occupations. Women working outside the home were constantly work as nurses, teachers, sales, clerks and services jobs where their wages are lower than those prevail by men. In 1993, 71% of Canadian women were concentrated in areas such as education, health and public administration. (Women In The Labor Force, 1994) Furthermore, most of the time women are hired as low, unskilled workers.
Globalization in today’s world is playing a crucial role in different sectors of the World’s economy. An example is the recent change in the agricultural production process, which has been mainly because of low transport cost and refrigerating facilities, which has boosted the exports of more and more non-traditional crops. Furthermore another consequence of globalization is the increase in women representation of the present global work force (Mehra & Gammage, 1999). This essay looks at these two emerging trends, and specifically looks at the impact of globalization on women’s participation in agricultural sector for developing countries, supporting from the literature that globalization has had a more negative impact on these women than empowering them. (i) Globalization and women’s participation in the agricultural labor force: Globalization can be explained and looked at from various perspectives.
As explained in the first paragraph it is all up to the choices made by each gender. There are many factors that go into doing the calculations for finding the wage gap between genders and among choices that are made regarding career there are also choices that are uncontrollable like being unemployed. In a study by the Journal of Labor Economics (2008) it was discovered that “women tend on average to be more positively selected into work than men. However, the difference between actual and potential wage gaps is small...where the gender employment gap is highest.” (P. 625). This piece of evidence is very important because when calculating for the wage gap unemployment is also taken into factor and there is a big gender employment gap with more women not in jobs.
This implied that women will give up or interrupt their careers in order to care for their children. The human capital theory also suggest that women’s lack of commitment to paid jobs is the cause of the disadvantage they suffer ,this theory suggest that females choose to take part time jobs so as to combine work and raising children. Anne Witt argues however that even when women work continuously in their careers they are still paid
It suggests that because the Government gives women so much support as parents, women are less motivated to go to work. Employers have paid very little attention to equal pay laws - The Washington Postarticle says that France has passed many laws requiring businesses to give equal pay, but many employers have ignored them. More women work part time than men - A 2012 report written by Mercer, a human resources firm, says predominantly women worked part time, with nearly half of them citing children as the main reason for choosing part-time work. Additional factors affecting pay differences included professional qualifications, work experience/seniority, being able to transfer to other regions, and employment structures within their organisations .
Sex discrimination is one of the “glass ceiling” for women that make holds them from career advancement. “Back in the 1960’s and the 1970’s, when women first entered the job market by the millions, females in male-dominated professions, like finance, kept quite about sexual harassment because they were afraid losing their job” (Driscoll & Goldberg, 1993, pp. 174-175). V: Conclusion: A. short-review: 1. Mostly gender roles have been assigned by the culture sensitive which is appreciate from the society and social norm which depends on the context that lead to have the different roles in society based by they gender since we born with, but women sometimes dissatisfy for their less heavy works which could change to make more impact and value for themselves and their family.
Women experience problems in being accepted into the work environment because the expected professional identity in construction is to be male. Male is believed to be more aggressive, high in competitive intuition, and has the highest rank in hierarchical leadership form the institutionalized traits of construction. Majority of employers ignore the facts that women is capable enough to work in the construction industry (Shanmugam, Amaratunga, Haigh, Elvitigala, Baldry, & Ruddock, 2007). Employers also prefer to believe that men are better suited for this profession. They do not provide more conducive working arrangements with regard to the various roles and responsibilities of women, including creating new and flexible working arrangements.
As a result of this policy, women have started switching their traditional roles as mother or housewife to career women. Consequently, societies are delaying their marriage to a later age or not marrying at all. The mean age of marriage in Malaysia has reported to decrease as compared to few years back. Today, the number of women participating in labour markets has increased tremendously and become significant in Malaysia’s economy as a
Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society. Despite the positive effects of globalization through increased employment opportunities for women, globalization has a darker, more sinister side. Out of the total 397 million workers in India, 123.9 million are women and of these women 96% of female workers are in the unorganized sector. Accordingly, although more women are now seeking paid employment, a vast majority of them obtain only poorly paid, unskilled jobs in the informal sector, without any job security or social security. Additionally working women in India are more likely to be subjected to intense exploitation; they are exposed to more and more risks that cause health hazards and are forced to endure greater levels of physical and mental stress.