Word order in Old English was much freer and flexible than it is in Modern English because of the use of declension, as it can be seen in the following examples given by Hogg and Alcorn (2012, p. 15): If we change the word order in Modern English, it is obvious that the subject of the sentence is different in (1) and (2). In other words, the meaning of the sentence completely changes. However, in Old English, the subject of (1) is guma and the object is wyrm, but in sentence (2) the subject is wyrm and guman the object. Since these words are declined on the nominative (subject) and accusative (direct object) cases, word movement is possible without changing the meaning. Also, the equivalents of ‘the’ are se and pone, each associated respectively
Methods There are numerous approaches in bilingual education, although all English as a second language (ESL). In ESL; there is little or no use of a child 's native language. However it includes many similar approaches inspired from bilingual education because of multinational classes. “ESL classes often has students with many different primary languages. In some schools; variety of approaches are used to bilingual education, designing individual programs based on the needs of each child (Santa, 2004).” In the bilingual education, one of the most common approaches is transitional bilingual education (TBE).
This study aimed to investigate the effect of explicit sight word instruction on reading speed of elementary EFL students. Sight words are generally well-defined as those words that are not decodable by Ordinary English phonics instructions and that appear often in text (Hood, 1977). These words are found in 50-70% of written texts (Harris & Sipay, 1975). Additionally, all three theoretic methods to reading instruction—synthetic (Chall, 1970), authentic (Goodman, 1986) and interactive (Rumelhart, 1994)—obviously address the significance of inserting sight word in reading instruction. Although many learners are able to recognize words accurately, they spend extreme time and energy in the process of word recognition, which may lead to a breakdown of comprehension.
Lastly, the position of participle or preposition can be move. In addition, Celce-Muricia and Larsen –freeman (1999) indicated that learning phrasal verbs are one of the most difficult for ESL because of their meanings and structures. The combination between each element in phrasal verbs could not help EFL learners understand the meanings clearly. Furthermore, Lightbrown (2000) studied about Classroom SLA research and second language teaching found that ESL learners lack of the foreigner environments of English conversation where can help them developing English phrasal verb outside the classroom. He recommended that students should learn phrasal verbs from movie, music, or in conversation that native speakers used in their language.
According to Sylviane Granger, this is due time restrictions on the teachers, who often do not have enough time on their educational schedules to teach a wide arrange of vocabulary and study it in depth, in addition of all the other aspects of English language a teacher must include in their program. She suggests that when teachers explain phraseology to their students, they should focus on phrasemes with obscure meaning, such as red herring. She also proposes the creation of corpora composed by ESL’s texts and speeches as a tool for analyzing the frequency and use of the different kinds of phrasemes and words used by
Some might be more acquainted with the use of the auxiliary verbs and the conditional, but will find the verb system and the passive voice more demanding. Surprisingly, weaknesses do not indicate one's incompetence or inability for teaching however, they demonstrate the necessity to be prepared for each class in the future. The lack of knowledge in a specific area does not highlight the evaluation of a good teacher, but confidence, patience, organization, awareness of needs, flexibility and imagination, open mind, encouragement and preparation. In order to be successful, an open mind towards grammar is the first step that all EFL/ESL teachers have to conquer. Encountering the metalanguage of grammar guides the language instructors to: understand sentence structure, understand learning-resources like quizzes, E-books, tools, tests, understand learners needs and grammar deficiencies, understand own insufficiency.
In many languages, including English, word order plays an important part in determining meanings expressed in other languages by inflections. Word order is a general term used in linguistics to refer to the arrangement of words in a given linguistic structure. It is most commonly examined in the context
Families may desire to be a part of their child’s schooling, but many feel a certain level of disconnect from the school system. Many parents also must pick up extra time, therefor lacking time to participate in their children’s education. Parents must put forward an effort to see that their children develop good social and educational standings with parental support. There are big challenges facing ELL teachers, as they need to is ensuring that each student makes progress in reading, math, and English. Being able to accurately assess each student can be difficult, as accommodations that are allowed during testing can sometimes be of limited value.
2. Literature Review 2.1 Why does ESL and EFL speakers find it difficult to speak English with proper pronunciation? “This difficulties has nothing to do with intelligence or level of education, or even with knowledge of English grammar and vocabulary (Abbas Pourhossein Gilakjani, Vol 4, No3, 2011).” Most of the psycholinguists and phonologists who are expert in this area, believe that the difficult of learning to pronounce a foreign language is cognitive rather than physical and Language transfer is one of the factors. Language Transfer (also known as L1 interference) is the reasons why ESL and EFL speakers find it difficult to speak English with a proper pronunciation. ESL (English second language) speakers and EFL (English as foreign
3. Selecting the Research method - Observation, Surveys , Secondary data studies, Experiments are the different ways of conducting a research which can be chosen by the researchers on the basis of objectives of the study, costs involved, importance of the study, urgency of the study and availability of the data 4. Selecting the Sampling procedure - Sampling is the process that uses a small number of population to draw conclusions regarding the