One of the most challenging aspects of summary is the length. This summary paragraph should be 5-7 sentences. Make sure it is in a distant and formal third person. Remember, just the facts. Do not critique it or offer personal insight...yet.
Share (1999) convincingly describes how decoding skills are supported by vocabulary, syntactic and semantic understandings. Speece and Cooper (2002) report a connection between early semantic skills and reading comprehension in their study of the connection between oral language and early reading. Decoding is vital because it is the basis on which all other reading instruction builds. If children are unable to decode words their reading will lack fluency, their vocabulary will be restricted, and their reading comprehension will suffer. Explicit, systematic and multi-sensory phonics instruction produces effective decoding skills.
In alphabetic languages such as English, individual spoken sounds are represented by individual letters or groups of letters. For reading and spelling, a young child should learn the complex rules by which these letters and sounds relate to each other. In languages with non-alphabetic orthography such as Chinese, There is no need to break words down into individual phonemes. Phonological impairments can cause greater difficulty in alphabetic languages than in logographic languages (Brunswick, 2009: 48). Several studies have shown that phonological awareness is essential in literacy and development of skills in reading and writing.
Transitional words and phrases contribute to the cohesiveness of a text and allow the sentences to flow smoothly. Without transitional phrases, a text will often seem disorganized and will most likely be difficult to understand. When these special words are used, they provide organization within a text and lead to greater understanding and enjoyment on the part of the reader. The following transitional phrases were found in your document: usually, since, eventually, and, however, in fact, in conclusion, nevertheless Consider using additional transitions where appropriate: • consequently • moreover • notwithstanding • accordingly • conversely •
So we know Language processing involves the reconstruction of meaning through prior knowledge. Top-down skills include surveying, skimming, scanning, reading for full comprehension, reading between the lines (inference), and reacting personally to reading texts. Even though we do not know the meaning of the word in a sentence, we can recognize and relate to something which makes sense with help of adverbs or adjectives in the sentence. By using their knowledge of context and co-text, they should either be able to guess the meaning of the unknown word, or understand the general idea without getting distracted by it. Example of common top-down listening activities include placing a series of pictures or sequence of events in order, listening to conversations and identifying where they take place, reading information about a topic then listening to find whether or not the same opinions are
Narrative text commonly relates to a story, myth, legend, fable etc. In narrative texts, there is opening, heart of events and closing unites. Furthermore, narrative text mainly focuses on some main components which are character, setting, theme, conflict, series of events and solution of the conflict (Comprehension Instruction, 2002). Rumelhart (1980) calls these characteristics as 'story grammar', and he investigates that they are beneficial for the readers to comprehend what they read, because these characteristics help them to get inside the text, meet the characters, pursue the series of the events and finally be aware of the conflict and solution. Regarding to the expository text, the writer's purpose usually is to show and explore information, and mostly it is related to history and science.
Word choice and/ or sentence structure creates confusion. Organization Consistent use of a variety of transitional strategies which lead readers through the piece. Some use of transitions to help clarify relationships between ideas and paragraphs. Weak transitions: Intro jumpy; Body paragraphs not connected. Lacking or weak transitions.
In communication, there are specific patterns and meanings of speech that should be mediated in the mental activity. This is the syntax element of a language, which is involved in the arrangement of words in a sentence and the meaning they derive from the arrangement. Although most languages use abbreviations in a speech, the abbreviations may not make sense without the knowledge of the basic formats of the language. Also, the omission of some words in a part of speech or sentence may result in a completely different meaning of the speech or sentence. Second language learners may have problems expressing themselves coherently even when they have the words but lack the organization of words to meaningful forms.
Huge number of documents are increasing rapidly, therefore, to organize it in digitized form text categorization becomes an challenging issue. Text categorization is an information retrieval technique where the documents are grouped into different classes. A major issue for text categorization is its large number of features. Most of the features are noisy, irrelevant and redundant, which may mislead the classifier. Hence, it is most important to reduce dimensionality of data to get smaller subset and provide the most gain in information.