The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model Of Memory

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Memory, although a very complex system of theories and methods, put simply is our ability to store and recall information that we have gathered, consciously and unconsciously, over the course of our lives. The aim of this essay is to establish the most efficient study method in relation to memory and the key processes of memory as well as an explanation and analysis on the different theories and models of memory.

Before one can establish the most efficient study method one must understand the key processes of memory and an understanding of how the memory system works. There are three key processes of memory – encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the processing of learning new information which can be processed on different
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However, this model has been considered an “oversimplification” of the process and a more appropriate model was established – the “working memory model” (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974). The model, unlike the multi-store model of memory, divides short-term memory into various pieces rather than clustering it all into one structure. Notably the working memory model includes an episodic buffer that acts as reserve storage that communicates with the long term memory as well as the three components – the central executive which allows for the movement of information, the phonological loop which enables the storage of words and the visuo-spatial sketchpad allows for the storage of visuals. One can say that rehearsal of information is essential for storage, however there are two kinds of rehearsal – maintenance rehearsal which is simply repetition and the information tends to be stored for a shorter amount of time while elaborative rehearsal allows for deeper processing or “more meaningfully integrated into what the person already knows” (Sternberg, Sternberg & Mio, 2012) and therefore a longer storage time which would be the goal of…show more content…
Because one wants to achieve “deeper processing” (Gilhooly et al, 2014) or semantic encoding while studying, a more interactive method of studying is required. Each study method has certain concepts and methods that should be practiced altogether for ultimate efficiency. Verbal study methods include writing out important information or describing diagrams in one’s own words. Visual study methods include creating one’s own diagrams such as a mind map or possibly using different coloured pens or highlighters to correspond to specific sections – anything visual or imagery based. Auditory study methods could include reading information out loud, recording it and playing it back. A combination of all three would be best. Elaborative rehearsal would be attempting to give the information meaning and trying to connect it to already known information, linking and associating (Sternberg et al, 2012). Mnemonic devices are “rehearsal strategies” (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2010) that include, amongst others, visual images, rhymes or music as “active, strategic learning” devices (Ashcraft & Radvansky, 2010). Lastly, while studying in a combined method of the above information one must make use of a “distributed practice” (Sternberg et al, 2012)

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