Informal learning is the self-directed learning which is driven by learner’s passion and motivation. Given these characteristics, it comes as no surprise that it creates possibly the highest impact. In this article, I outline the differences between formal and informal learning and see how you can leverage on informal learning in workplace . Background Before understanding how you can leverage on Informal learning in workplace, it is worthwhile to understand the differences between Formal and Informal learning. While jury is divided on the benefits and impact of Informal training, I believe that instead of Formal vs Informal training debate, the right view is to encourage a blend of both at workplace.
Formal learning takes place during planned, structured, instructor-led courses and programmes that are often institutionally based. It is often related to some form of education and training. The participation in a publicly organised BCM or an in-house BCM training course is such examples. Comparing to formal learning (Hicks et al., 2007), informal learning allows learners to have better control of their learning. This form of learning usually happens outside the classroom.
Many conventional classroom settings do not offer the mental stimulation students require to develop full understanding of educational material at hand. Traditionally, many educators employ methods of "direct education," whereby they simply teach students in a uniform fashion. Such forms of direct learning, including the familiar lecture and examination process, result in teachers being too involved in students ' educational experiences and, consequently, hinders their potential. On the other end of the spectrum, the more effective indirect education encourages students to learn independently by experimenting, by reflecting on their thoughts, and by observing others. This phenomenon repeatedly appears in the novel Frankenstein, whose characters are highly influenced by their levels of education.
The term learning is defined by the Oxford dictionary as the process of acquiring knowledge from reading and studying. This is a very formal view on how we humans learn on a daily basis. However, Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning Model proposes that learning may occur just by mere observation of one’s surrounding. This process of learning may be also referred to as informal learning. This way of learning has been in practice since the beginning of our civilisation as a method to pass on the wisdom of the elders to the younger generations in order to perform day to day tasks.
Teachers and administrators may be aware of how implicit curriculum operates within their school. However, that operation is not a result of intentional decisions made specifically to teach students. For instance, students may learn about authority from a teacher's emphasis on tardiness. However, unless this is a specific teaching strategy that has been set out ahead of time, it is an example of implicit curriculum. To be honest, I really prefer the explicit curriculum rather than implicit curriculum.
Researchers have various views about different vocabulary learning strategies. According to Richards and Schmidt (2002) incidental learning is the process of learning something while intending to learn something else. In learning a new foreign language, incidental learning has been considered as an effective way of learning vocabulary from text (Day, Omura, & Hiramatsu, 1991; Jenkins, Stein, & Wysocki, 1984; Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985; Saragi, Nation, & Meister, 1978). Incidental learning is the process of learning something in the context without the intention of doing so. It is also learning one thing while learners are intending to teach another (Richards & Schmidt, 2002).
Observational Learning Mahroo Ali 19-10662 PSYC 100-D Nazia Asif Takkhar Observation Learning Mahroo Ali Forman Christian College Q1: Discuss the role of observational learning in the development of negative behaviors in adolescents (teenagers). Observational Learning Learning behavior from the naturalistic social situations, environment and family and imitating it, is called Observational Learning. Some common examples of Observational learning that we can observe from our lives are; learning our native language, social values, facial expressions and personality traits of the people around us. It can be summed up as the phenomenon of learning from the inspection of another person 's behavior. Concepts of observational learning, imitation, vicarious reinforcement and self-regulative functions, social learning theory greatly increased its potential power to explain many facts of child development (Baldwin, 1973).
2.0 INTRODUCTION Language development happens both inside the classroom (as part of a formal establishment, school or institute) and outside it. The classroom is generally considered a formal setting, and most other environments informal, with respect to language learning. “In environments where informal language development is adequate, it is possible to regard the formal classroom as supplemental, complementary, facilitating and consolidating”(Van Lier, 1988: 20). For second-language development in such environments the informal settings can be regarded as primary and the formal classroom as ancillary. The L2 lesson then becomes a language arts lesson, focusing on special language skills and cognitive/academic growth, much in the same way
1.6.2 Informal learning Activities Conceptual definition: Informal learning activities is defined as the activities to develop and maintain capabilities of the learner to perform competently within their professional environments (International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), 2008). Operational definition: In this study, informal learning activities is refers to the learning action which applied by the learner in the workplaces as the purpose for improvement. 1.6.3 Organizational support Conceptual definition: Organizational supportis defined as the help from the organization to the employees when it is needed to perform the job effectively and overcome difficult issues (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002). Operational definition: In this study, organizationalsupport is refers to the practices of the organization that always provide the learning opportunity to the employees in the workplaces. 1.6.4 Knowledge Sharing Conceptual definition: Knowledge sharing is defined as informal interaction of culture, exchange of employee knowledge, experiences, and skills through the whole department or organization (Reid, 2003).
Traditional classes are normally dominated by direct and unilateral instruction. Teachers following the traditional approach presume that there is a fixed body of knowledge that the student must come to know. Students are expected to blindly accept the information they are provided without questioning the teacher (Stofflett, 1998). The teacher seeks to transmit meanings and thought to the passive student providing little room for questions initiated by students, independent reflection or interaction between students ( VAST, 1998). Even in activity-based subjects when learners are working activities in a group, group discussion or exploration of the concepts are not promoted.