Effort Reward Imbalance Model

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The reality that work-related stress has undesirable consequences for the health and safety of both individuals and their organizations has been acknowledged universally from the past three decades. This reality has been reflected both in public and media interest and in increasing concern of trades unions, and scientific and professional researches.
Workplace pressure is the part and parcel of all work and is unavoidable due to the demands of the contemporary competitive work environment and labor market. These pressures can be of both positive and negative nature. Pressures which the workers perceive as acceptable may even keep them alert, enthusiastic, motivated, able to work and learn, keeping in view the available resources and personal
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According to this model, work-related progress and benefits depend upon a balanced relationship between efforts that are spent and rewards that are received at work. Efforts imply job demands or obligations which are imposed on employees such as time pressure and working overtime and rewards refer to money, respect, admiration, esteem, career opportunities and job security provided by the employer. Work that is characterized by both high efforts and low rewards represents a balanced or reciprocity deficit. This model suggests that an imbalanced (non-reciprocal) relationship between the effort that is spent and rewards which are received can result in the emotional distress which is associated with resulted stress and increased risk of health related problems. (Siegrist…show more content…
However, some factors at workplace are more likely to lead to stress than others. A person can experience work-related stress as a result of various factors.
The Institute of Work, Health & Organizations, University of Nottingham, UK has classified stress related hazards at work into work content and work context as mentioned in HSE Policy for Preventing & Managing Stress in the Workplace, 2012.
Work Context– Potential Hazardous Conditions:

• Organizational culture: This includes factors like Poor communication, low levels of support for problem solving and personal development and lack of definition of organizational objectives.
• Role in organization including Role ambiguity and role conflict; responsibility for people unclear.
• Career development including Career stagnation and uncertainty, under or over promotion, poor pay, job insecurity and low social value to work.
• Decision latitude/Control including Low participation in decision making and lack of control over work.
• Inter-personal relationships at work including social or physical isolation, poor relationships with superiors, interpersonal conflict and lack of social

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