Regrouped Muslim forces have attacked Edessa begins the Second Crusade. Three orders: the Teutonic Knights, the Knights Hospitaller, and the Knights Templar, as well as two monarch-led armies came to the aid of Edessa. Unfortunately, the armies changed their minds last minute to attack Damascus resulting in a disorganized defeat. The armies are once again dividing, some staying and some returning home. Turkic ruler Saladin united the Muslim armies of South Asia and North Africa and has taken over Jerusalem.
The Crusades were the wars and military expeditions of the Christians and Muslims. The Christians were fighting to regain Jerusalem, “the Holy Land” which was under the control of the Muslims . Most of the land around the Holy land had also been captured by the Muslims . The Crusades started when Pope Urban II pleaded to the people to go to war to regain what belonged to the Christians. This was just the start of the deaths and wars for the many years to come.
Attila instead took the message as a proposal of marriage and demanded that Honoria be turned over and given half the Western Empire (Frassetto). Attila continued on his warpath for his last few years before his death. Attila entered Gaul with a large army. After capturing Gaul, between 450 and 451 CE, he went on a campaign raiding important cities of Cologne, Metz, Reims, Strasbourg, and Tier. In 452, Attila planned his greatest invasion since his time with the Eastern Roman Empire.
The crusaders led by Prince Edward sailed to Acre to fight the Egyptians after the failure to capture Tunis by Louis IX in the eighth crusade. The Christians captured Nazareth and made the Egyptian sultan agree to a treaty that favoured the Christians. After the truce ended the sultan attacked Acre which ended the crusades. The crusades can be seen as war for religious devotion or a chance for political gain. It was about religious devotion as people fought under Pope Urban || promises for having your sins forgiven.
The Crusades The Crusades (1095-1291) were holy wars, or wars for a religious cause, against Muslims and others to drive them off and to regain control of the Holy Land. What started the Crusades were the Seljuk Turks invading and defeating the Byzantine Empire in 1071 at the Battle of Manzikert. After the lose to the Seljuk Turks, the Byzantine Empire was left in chaos and civil war, until General Alexius Comnenus took control of the Byzantine Empire and became emperor in 1081. In 1095, Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for help against the Turkish threats. Then, at the Council of Clermont in France, Pope Urban II called for Western Christians to begin fighting in order to regain the Holy Land from Muslim control and to help the Byzantines.
When William was a young boy he had many obstacles to overcome. When William was eight his father died returning from a pilgrimage of Jerusalem. When his father died William became Duke of Normandy in 1035. When this happened many lords in Normandy didn’t approve of him ruling them in 1040 they tried to kill William the plan failed but Williams guardian ( Gilbert of Brionne) was killed. In 1042 the King knighted William.
He lost in the battle with England though, and lost territory of Spain in 1588. In the Dutch Revolt, the Spanish Netherlands colonies freed themselves from King Philip’s Absolute Monarchy. King Charles of England came to power when his father James I died. While he was ruling, he restored freedom of religion for the Catholics and the Irish, and dissolved Parliament. When the second Scots war broke out, he had to call Parliament again.
In a time of drastic change in America, adding such a controversial war to the mix of social issues seemed to many like an inappropriate decision. The Vietnam War, which lasted twenty years, from 1955 and 1975, was the battle for liberation of South Vietnam from North Vietnam. The communist North Vietnam, led by Ho Chi Minh, was backed by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and communist China in an attempt to overtake the South Vietnamese who were led by the Catholic minority, Ngo Dinh Diem. Before 1960, his corrupt and brutal ways were beginning to wear on his people. By 1963, the United States has decided that Diem must go and authorizes and assassination (Osman, 2 October).
With the break out of World War I in Europe, the Sheikh-ul-Islam declared a Jihad against the following countries; Britain, France, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro.1 The call for Jihad was directed to all Muslims around the world to stand up against their Christian temporal rulers.2 In 1914, there were 270 million Muslims around the world with only 30 million being governed by Muslims and the rest governed by other predominantly Christian nations.3 Even with the threat of “the fire of hell”, the call for Jihad was not as successful as expected. Strachan writes, “Islam was universal in its appeal, while nationalism was particular.”.4 Muslims remained divided and did not fall under one calling for Jihad and many remained loyal to their temporal rulers.
He faced enormous difficulties during his papacy, because he had to restore the western church and the Papal States. Pope Martin V died on February 20, 1431. Pope Martin V had many different achievements and events that he was a part of. When he was a cardinal subdeacon, he helped organize and call the Council of Pisa. Once he was elected pope however, he faced enormous difficulties as after the Great Schism, the church was split into two, so he had to restore the western church and
The fourth crusade started in 1201 CE and ended three years later in 1204. It occurred shortly after the third crusade. In 1203 CE, Alexius IV said, once he was back on his throne, he would pay for the rest of the Crusade. Crusaders took over Constantinople and put him on the throne, but he could not pay the money he had promised, so he tried to pay the money through raising taxes. Then he became so unpopular that he was executed and Alexios Doukas was proclaimed emperor as Alexios V. In 1204, the Crusaders and Venetians attacked Constantinople and sacked the city.
The battle between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League known is as the Battle of Lepanto and it is the most important for the Christian religion. It is of great significance because if the Holy League had not won, the Ottoman Empire would have taken over Europe, and destroyed the Christian religion. The forming of the Holy League was important as well. The new naval technique used by the Christian forces and the first success to push back and erode the Ottoman empire were the key concepts to defeat the Ottomans. The well-known crusades were fought between the end of the eleventh century and the late thirteenth century.
The Crusades were a series of battles that, from the beginning, had religious undertones. At the beginning of the 11th century, the Byzantine emperor Alexios I called for Pope Urban II to help with the growing threat of Turkish presence. Pope Urban II responded immediately by convincing Catholic soldiers to gain access to and protect the Holy Land and holy sites that were under Muslim rule. This was the first of several Crusades that took place over a 200-year period. Historians disagree on the number of Crusades being seven or eight, but the last one in this 200-year span was started by King Louis IX of France.