An open fracture is a broken bone that penetrates the skin. Compared to a broken bone that does not pierce the skin (a closed fracture), an open fracture increases your risk for infection. Therefore, immediate treatment is necessary. This often requires an operation to clean the affected area to prevent infection. Furthermore,
Hemostasis Hemostasis is the process which halts bleeding after an injury. During hemostasis, the initial wound stimulates vasoconstriction in the wound bed to diminish blood loss while the exposure of collagen from the wound site causes the activation, aggregation and adhesion of circulating platelets to the damaged endothelium. This results in the degranulation of the adhered platelets that eventually formed the platelet plug via a positive feedback mechanism. Next, coagulation occurs where various factors secreted by damaged tissues and activated platelets activate prothrombin activator that catalyse the conversion of prothrombin to
Introduction Inflammation, as described by Gilroy and Lawrence (2008), is a primitive response that aids against damage or injury to tissue. It is also described as the first step of restoring injured tissue back to its normal physiological purpose. We as humans, depend on inflammation because our survival and health is determined by how efficient the inflammatory response is when it comes to kick-starting the process of wound healing. In this essay, I will be discussing the anatomical pathology of inflammation, i.e. the causes, signs/symptoms and treatment of inflammation as well as discussing some articles pertaining to the mechanism of inflammation, how inflammation promotes the healing process, what occurs when one wants to induce inflammation,
It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Rehabilitation involves the physical, psychological and the social aspects of burn treatment. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration
Inflammation in most cases is of great value and a normal response to injury. This is how the body floods the area with oxygen, nutrients, antibodies to fight off invading organisms, and fibroblasts to carry on the wound-healing processes to the injured area. You may, however, see how sustained levels of cortisol in the bloodstream may actually interfere with the natural healing process and progressively decrease the body’s resistance to infections, swelling, and tumors of all
SIGNIFICANT LAB TESTS D – Dimer test D – Dimer test is a test to detect the formation of blood clots. Blood clots happen when the blood mix together with the protein, it will called fibrin. Another protein that called plasmin, break the clots apart. As the fibrin breaks down, levels of D – Dimer will increase. IMAGING
1. Wound healing process Wound healing, a physiological response to the disruption in tissue integrity, is a dynamic and complex process imperative for maintaining homeostasis. It consists of four partially overlapping phases, namely the inflammatory, migratory, proliferative and maturation phase. Notably, this process is non-linear wherein it can advance and retract through the phases depending on various factors within the patients. 1.1 Inflammatory phase Inflammatory phase can be further divided into hemostasis and inflammation, which is triggered immediately and last for about two to five days succeeding injury.
The aneurysm will be watched for sign of changes, by closely monitoring your thoracic aortic aneurysm with CT or MRI scans on a regular basis or every 6-12 months. High blood pressure is one of the particular symptoms of thoracic aortic aneurysm, if you have high blood pressure, your physician will prescribe blood pressure medication for you to lower at least your overall blood pressure and in the weakened area of the aneurysm. And there is this thing called a “statin” (or cholesterol lowering medication) to maintain the health of your blood vessels. 2. Surgical Repair If the thoracic aortic aneurysm become larger or you are already causing symptoms, you will need a quick treatment to prevent a rupture from occurring.
THROMBOSIS When a blood vessel is injured, the cells of your blood bond together to form a blood clot. The blood clot helps you stop bleeding. Blood clots are made of a combination of blood cells, platelets (small sticky cells that speed up the clot-making process), and fibrin (protein that forms a thread-like mesh to trap cells). Doctors call this kind of blood clot a “thrombus.” Blood clots are good when they help seal a cut to stop bleeding. But sometimes, a blood clot can form when it is not needed.
Literature reveals that the incidence of infections is higher in the 2 years following the surgery, especially from pneumococcal infections. The management of splenectomized patients is critical in reducing the risk of post-infections. This involves: providing adequate education to the patient with regard to the immunological function of the spleen and the risk of infection by encapsulated bacteria, vaccination and antibiotic prophylaxis as the cornerstone of preventative treatment against these