Primary infection occurs in epithelial cells leading to a skin rash and fever as a phenotype. When virions spread to adjacent sensory neurons, a lifelong infection is established (Owen, Crump, & Graham, 2015). Both primary and secondary diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality but thanks to advances in diagnostic and the production of vaccines, it is possible to decrease their burden (Gershon, 2013). 1.1 Varicella: Varicella (chickenpox), the primary infection of VZV, is characterized by cutaneous eruption typically seen in children. In adults, this primary infection is more severe and in immunocompromised patients, it can be followed by complications such as, high fever, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis (Gershon et al., 2013).
In severe cases, the rate of infection from bacterial contamination remains as high as 20 percent, depending on the associated injuries to the soft tissues, as well as the effectiveness of initial management. Bacterial contamination to the wound at the time of injury and hospital-acquired microbes increase your risk for infection. Other possible complications include non-union of the broken fragments of bone and chronic osteomyelitis. Sometimes, amputation of a limb may be necessary to save your life. Failure of fixation and non-union of bone fragments will depend on various factors such as the location of the fracture and the extent of damage to the soft tissues.
Aerobic organisms particularly Clostridium perfringes and other species of bacteriodes and aerobic cocci may also present (Klein et al. 1995). Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes a wide variety of septic infections in man and other vertebrates (Hare and Wilits, 1962). Among species much less commonly encountered in wound infections are Pasteurella multicida in animal bites, Corynebacterium diphtheria and Bacillus anthracis in malignant pustules of skin. In chronic infection that are slow to heal and in pus showing no
What is it Lupus is a chronic systemic rheumatic disease, that is, can affect any organ and / or system : joints and muscles, can damage the skin, kidney, lung and almost all organs. One of the characteristics of this disease is a disease that is very heterogeneous. It is difficult to find two patients with the same symptoms and the same patterns of disease. That complicates often it is diagnosed. The evolution of the disease develops in stages and other outbreak in which the effects of the disease forwarded.
Many factors, including economic, social, demographic, biologic and ecological ones, led to the decrease in the occurrence of infectious diseases by novel pathogens. These factors include income increase, expansion of education, improvement of health services, industrialization and urbanization. The disease transition, known as the “second epidemiological transition” was undergone first by developed countries (Uusitalo, et al., 2002). The rate of infectious diseases has decreased the last decades because of development of medical practices and public health measures. During this time period, the burden of mortality has been shifting toward non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as heart failure, cancer, and diabetes (Harper & Armelagos, 2010).
The Good the Bad and the Vaccine Vaccines, a term that gives some parents the peace of mind and makes some parents anxious. Vaccines makes our bodies ready to fight disease and viruses more effectively by introducing our body to microscopic amounts of viruses and bacteria. Common deadly diseases such as small pox that took many lives has now been eliminated because of the smallpox vaccine. In the past common diseases such as polio, rubella is now a rare case because of vaccination. To prevent public out break, Vaccination for childhood diseases such as pertussis, polio, measles, diphtheria, rubella is now mandatory for children attending public schools in Canada.
. chronic Diseases, including such noncommunicable problems as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, diabetes and respiratory Disease, are actually the major reason behind death and disability, not merely in developed countries, but additionally worldwide. The best total amounts of chronic Disease deaths and Diseases right now occur in developing
Acute complications occur as a direct consequence from the trauma sustained and include damage to vascular structures, nerves, or soft tissue. Compartment syndrome is an acute complication whereby increasing amount of pressure within the muscle group disrupts the circulation and the function of the tissue (Howe, Eiff, & Grayzel, 2015). Comparatively, delayed complications may occur after treatment has been initiated or in response to treatment. Specific fracture may predispose to severe bleeding and potentially fatal. For example, fracture at neck of femur will injure the femoral artery and causes the patient to have massive bleeding (Tornetta, Kain, Creevy, 2007).
Healthcare waste management General In the process of healthcare, waste is generated. It usually includes sharps, human tissues or body parts and other infectious materials. The amount of laboratory wastes in hospitals is being generated due to the use of more disposable products (Baveja et al 2000). The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a high potential for infection and injury than any other waste. The work environment can be polluted, and consequently healthcare personnel and patients can be impacted (MOHSW 2006) Characteristics of healthcare waste Healthcare waste management includes all activities involved in waste generation, segregation, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of all types of waste
INTRODUCTION Wound infections are one of the bad complications in patients undergoing surgeries. Consequently, infections of different organs or tissues that visible to surgeons may lead to significant increment of postoperative morbidity and mortality beside prolongation of hospital stay.1 It has been well documented that eradication of wound infection resulted in significant increment of patient comfort and decreased medical costs.2 Onche and Adedeji3 stated that Staphylococcus aureus is the predominate cause of surgical wound and nosocomial infections. Currently, the antibiotic drug resistance is a fast growing concern in wound infection management beside the risk of impairment of wound healing, bacteraemia, or even sepsis.4 National Nosocomial
However, it is likely due to an abnormal response of the immune system. Food or bacteria in the intestines, or even the lining of the bowel may cause the uncontrolled inflammation associated with Crohn 's disease. Signs and Symptoms: The symptoms of Crohn 's disease depend on where the disease occurs in the bowel and its severity. These are some symptom examples Chronic diarrhea, often bloody and containing mucus or pus Weight loss Fever Abdominal pain and tenderness Feeling of a mass or fullness in the abdomen Rectal bleeding
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Lupus is an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks its self. Lupus can affect different parts of the body including the skin, blood, kidneys, and joints. There are four different types of Lupus, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous Lupus, Drug-Induced Lupus, and Neonatal Lupus. However, the most common and deadly lupus is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a long term disease that causes inflammation of various tissues in the body.