Written Assignment: Nucleic Acids: Most Important Macromolecules

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Unit 2 Written Assignment
Part 1
1. Once you have found a molecule you are interested in, use its entry in ChEBI and what you have learned in the course to write a brief description of this molecule.
Nucleic Acids is very important Macromolecules that every organism needs. They carry genetic blue print of a cell and the instructions of the functioning of the cell. There are two types of Nucleic acids, namely DNA known as deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA known as ribonucleic acid.
The backbone of this Nucleic acid is the nucleotides. These nucleotides are made up of three components, namely the nitrogenous base, the pentose sugar, and the phosphate group.
The Nitrogenous bases is made up of organic molecules adenine A, guanine G, cytosine C and
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The molecular formula of cytosine C4H5N30. It has ring arrangements that is connected o the same atoms that are very stable. In addition, cytosine is attached to amine group in position 4 and keto at position 2, via a B-N glyosidic bond.
In the same way, nitrogenous base, meaning a nitrogen-containing base. So this family contains of Nitrogen as a constituent unit, and being an organic compound, it has carbon. This family of nitrogenous base is non-polar because of their ring shape.
Therefore looking at the molecular formula of cytosine is consists of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. These are also compositions of the nitrogenous base. In addition, has a ring shape, and is non-polar. These are also the characteristics this family.

4. Indicate whether it is a monomer or polymer
Cytosine is one of the DNA monomer
5. In the latter case, describe what are its monomer units and what type of linkage connects
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Part 2
1. In the ChEBI entry, identify the SMILES formula of the molecule you just described.
SMILES: Nc1cc[nH]c(=O)n1

2. Copy and paste it in the text field above the drawing area in [PubChem Sketcher] (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/edit2/index.html "PubChemSketcher V2.4") and press enter. The skeletal formula should appear.

3. Refer to PubChem Sketcher help page by clicking on the "Help" button to learn how to use the interface. Using the buttons on the left, remove atoms from the molecule or add a functional group to it. You can, instead, modify bonds, for instance turning a single covalent bond to a double bond. Remember we agreed that cytosine consists of oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. From the PubChem sketcher I just removed one atom of nitrogen, and one atom of hydrogen.
4. Then export the new skeletal formula as a PNG image. Insert this image in your assignment.

5. Hypothesize what might be the effect of the change you made on the molecule's properties.
The molecule will become hydrophilic, and remain liquid at room temperature.

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