Clash of Civilizations
1 Wuthnow’s Arguments
Being a Christian nation America has consistently reconciled the diversity within it. However, whether being a minority (explorers and settlers) or the majority religion (in the nineteenth century), a common attribute prevails throughout the last five hundred: American Christians perceived themselves as the ruling power and the dominant cultural influence (Wuthnow 35). Sociologist Robert Wuthnow examines how the individuals and America as a nation are responding to the challenges of increasing religious and cultural diversity brought by the new wave of immigrants from non-Christian culture.
To this end Wuthnow analysis revolves around two main questions, having always religiously diverse, have…show more content… First came in 1993 in Foreign Affairs. As an expansion of 1993 Clash of civilizations?, Huntington published a book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order in 1996. The 1993 article hypothesize that the fundamental source of conflict in the new world (post cold war era) will not be primarily ideological or primarily economic, instead conflict of the future will occur along the cultural fault lines separating civilizations (Huntington 22).
Huntington argues that it is far more meaningful now to group countries not in terms of their political or economic systems or in terms of their economic development but rather in terms of their culture and civilization (Huntington 24). He further elaborates that the increasing interaction between seven or eight civilizations and their basic differences will be the reasons of clash. The increasing interaction intensifies civilization consciousness and awareness of differences between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations resulting the widening differences between civilizations and alliance within civilization (Huntington 23). He also adds, the revival of religion for fulfilling the gap of weakened nation state identity by the process of economic modernization and social change will also play the role. Furthermore, a west in the peak of its power confronts non-west that increasingly have the desire, the will and the resources to shape the world in non-western ways through Asianization, Hinduization and re-Islamization (Huntington 26). Huntington further explains, cultural characterises and differences are less mutable and hence less easily compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. Lastly he claims that cultural commonalities is a prerequisite for economic reintegration, hence there will be rise of economic regionalism based on cultural similarities (Huntington