Ionization of atoms and the photoelectric effect can occur during the interaction of radiation with matter. Optical properties of the substances in the UV region of the spectrum significantly differs from the optical properties in the invisible area. Typically, reduction of transparency in UI ( an increase of the absorption coefficient) is typical for a matter that is transparent in the visible region. For example, the ordinary glass is non-transparent at 320 nm. At shorter wavelengths only uviol glass, sapphire, magnesium fluoride, quartz, fluorite, lithium fluoride (has the most distant border transparency - to 105 nm.)
Thereafter, various types of biopsy tests are carried out on the cells for further verification. These tests are done by cutting a small portion of body cells or tissue. A pathologist (specialized in examining body cells) analyzes the removed portion under a microscope. In some cases, the doctor needs the help of an ultrasound or CT scan to direct the biopsy needle to cut the correct portion of tissue. For some patients, a number of biopsies are needed to get clarification on the tumor.
Examination of the patient with respect to facies, posture in the bed, respiration can help in localizing the cause and nature of pain. The abdominal examination should be thorough but extremely gentle starting from the nontender area. 1. Laboratory investigations depend upon the suspected cause of pain and include • Haemogram • Kidney function tests • Liver function tests • Serum or urinary amylase and lipase • Blood sugar • Urinalysis. • Special analysis like serum lead estimations may be needed, if necessary.
A scanning electron microscope consists of an electron gun and a series of electromagnetic lenses and apertures. The electron beam emitted from the electron gun is condensed to a fine probe and is used for surface scanning. The electron gun can be either of thermionic or field emission type. Field emission type has higher beam brightness, which plays an important role in imaging quality. A field emission gun is 1000X brighter than a tungsten thermionic gun.
Initial evaluations of these two techniques in clinical trials have indicated that they may improve the diagnostic performances of differentiating benign from malignant lesions and help to reduce the number of unnecessary benign thyroid biopsies [15, 16]. Strain elastography is a previous elastography technique; however, it requires manual compression by the operator and can only provide semi-quantitative images . The second type of elastography is shear-wave elastography (SWE). SWE is the latest elastographic technique with more reproducible and less operator-dependent and doesn’t rely much on external force. SWE can measure quantitative elastographic values which can be expressed in either kPa or m/s [18 -
The second test is called the “external rotation test,” wherein the doctor bends your knee with your ankle placed at neutral position with the foot. The foot is turned to the outer side of the leg and if pain is elicited at the area of the high ankle ligament, then this suggests injury. X-rays of the ankle are also very important to rule out a broken bone or fracture. If an increased space is seen between the leg bones (tibia and fibula) an injury to the high ankle ligaments may be suspected. MRI and CT scan are also very helpful in diagnosing these ankle injuries.
Pelvic and abdominal CT looks at the abdominal and pelvic organs (such as the liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, and adrenal glands) and the gastrointestinal tract. These studies are often ordered to check for a cause of pain. A sinus CT exam is used to both diagnose sinus disease and to detect an obstruction or narrowing in the sinus drainage pathway. A spine CT test is commonly used to detect the herniated disc or narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in people with neck, back, arm, and/or leg pain. It is also used to detect a fracture or break in the spine.
It is performed to repair and reshape bodily structures affected by birth defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma/injuries, infections, tumours and disease. Using a wide range of reconstructive techniques, plastic surgeons mend holes and repair damage primarily through the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another. Their main aim is to restore the body, or the function of a specific part of the body, to normal. However, plastic surgeons
ABSTRACT Managing trauma to anterior teeth in children is a challenge for dentists. It can be further complicated by the presence of a foreign body in the root canal which act as an additional nidus of infection. This foreign body is often diagnosed accidentally after radiographic evaluation. Thorough and careful clinical and radiographic assessments are required for complete retrieval of foreign body without much damage to the tooth structure. This paper presents a case series of two case reports where successful complete retrieval of foreign objects was performed from the root canals of permanent incisors followed by aesthetic management of the involved teeth.
The non-photographic sensors have the ability to directly record data in digitized form supporting more rapid data processing. Also, it is easier in usage than photographic sensors. Furthermore, this sensor has the ability to measure electromagnetic radiation in narrow bands simultaneously with the same optical system. Also, they have higher radiometric and spectral resolution than the photographic sensors. One more advantage is that non- photographic sensors are able to “find” the radiation from any objects that exist in the field through a wave length range.