The most upfield of the carbons was at a PPM of 48 and belonged to the methyl carbon at the end of the ether substituent. A range of four carbon peaks falling between PPMs of 120-130 represented the benzyl compound of the methyl benzoate product. In part two of the lab methyl benzoate was subjected to a nitration resulting in the formation of methyl-3-nitrobenzoate. The purpose of part two was to add a nitrogen group to methyl benzoate by means of an electrophilic aromatic substitution (EAS) reaction. An EAS reaction pertains to the substitution of an aromatic hydrogen for an electrophile by means of an electrophilic attack on the aromatic ring which in this case is benzene.
Isolation of Ibuprofen: Fifteen 200 mg ibuprofen tablets were used, which was 3.37g (16.34 mmol, 112.3%) ibuprofen. This amount of ibuprofen was submerged in 25 mL of acetone and stirred vigorously for 5 minutes to dissolve. Red coatings of the tablet were separated and vacuum filtration was utilized to dissolve all insoluble components. The melting point range of the crude ibuprofen was 72.4-73.9°C. The major bands from the IR are, FTIR: sp3 O-H stretch, about 3200-2500 cm-1 (b, m); sp3 C-H stretch, 2991-2868 cm-1 (sh, m); sp2 =C-H stretch, 3100-3000 cm-1 (sh, w); sp2 C=O stretch, 1701 cm-1 (sh, s); and sp2-sp2, aromatic, C=C stretch (in ring), 1507 cm-1 (s, m).
An infrared spectrum was run on the product to be compared to the starting material. The starting material had peaks at 2900 cm-1, and 1700 cm-1, corresponding to the Csp3-H of alkanes, and the C=O of a carbonyl ketone. The product’s IR spectrum had a peak at 3400 cm-1 and 2900 cm-1, indicating the prescence of an alcohol and Csp3-H of alkanes. The Jones test was performed using cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone as controls, and testing the starting material, 2-methylcyclohexanone, and the product. The product yielded a positive result, indicating the presence of an alcohol functional group.
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
This chemical would be called calcium sulfate trihydrate. When finding the mass of this chemical, you find the mass of the calcium sulfate and then add 3 times the mass of water to it. (40.08 + 32.066 + 4(15.999) + 3(2(1.0079) + 15.999)) = 190.19 g/mol. The water can easily be removed from a hydrate just by heating strongly. You will be weighing a hydrate and heating it to remove the water (now called "anhydrous salt") and weigh it again.
The analysis was carried on C18 shim- pack GIST (150mmx 4.6mm 5µ) column used as stationary phase. A freshly prepared mobile phase consisting of methanol: potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer in ratio of (30:70 v/v), PH-3 adjusted using ortho phosphoric acid (OPA) these were filtered by 0.45µM Whatmann filter paper and sonicated before use. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1ml/min. The detection was carried out at 220 nm and run time was around 10 minutes. Selection of wavelength A UV spectrum of drotaverine hydrochloride, ethamsylate, tranexamic acid in water was noted by scanning the solution in the range of 200-400nm.
The solvents DMF and methanol were distilled for purification. Other chemicals were used as obtained. 2.2 Preparation of polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene monomer. Styrene (1 mole) was taken in a round bottom flask (RBF) fitted with a reflux condenser. DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring.
In addition, phenolphthalein was added as an indicator. The aliquots were titrated against sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution until end point was reached, after which volume of NaOH consumed was recorded. The value of the rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0002 s-1. The experiment was then repeated with 40/60 V/V isopropanol/water mixture and a larger value of k = 0.0007 s-1 was obtained. We concluded that the rate of hydrolysis of (CH3)3CCl is directly proportional to water content in the solvent mixture.
Table 2: Effect of Pronase Treatment of the Phosphoprotein Derived from the Synaptosome-Enriched Fractiona5. Treatment Total dpm in the Total dpm in the supernatant ( S ) phosphoprotein residue [S/(S + R)] 100 after digestion of after digestion the phosphoprotein ( R ) 33P 32P 33P 32P 33P 32P Pronase 180 684 30 173 86 78 Control 8 72 773 3 8 Alkaline Phosphatase 1571 886 176 109 90 89 Control 224 122 1445 1053 13 10
An RER value of 0.85 indicates that the mixture of substrates being metabolised is around 50% fat and 50% CHO. The values for rest and 60W are around this value with 0.81 and 0.87, however when the wattage is increased again the RER values jump up to 0.91 at 120W, and 0.94 at 180W. This suggests that the substrate percentage is now leaning more towards CHO consumption and a RER value of >1.00 indicates 100% energy being produced from CHO under anaerobic