Anthocyanins are glycosides that have sugars at position 3 and sometimes elsewhere. Without their sugars, anthocyanins are known as anthocyanidins. Anthocyanin pigments are water-soluble, synthesised in the cytosol and localised in vacuoles. Their basic ring structure can be modified by hydroxylation, methylation or glycosylation. Colour of anthocyanin is influenced by many factors, including the number of hydroxyl and methoxyl groups in ring B of the anthocyanidin, the presence of aromatic acids esterified to the main skeleton, and the pH of the cell vacuole in which these compounds are stored.
Pectin exists in varying amounts in fruit cell walls and has important nutritional and technological properties, mainly because of its ability to form gels 1. Pectin is essentially a linear polysaccharide and like most plant polysaccharides, it
Volatile compounds and their Role in Fruit Flavors (Nadia Fatima , MS14-07) Abstract: A wide range of volatile compounds are produced in fruits that generate their distinguishing aromas and contribute to their flavor. Volatile compounds of fruits are mostly consists of esters, lactones , aldehydes, alcohols , ketones, and terpenoids etc. There are a number of pathways involved in volatile biosynthesis starting from lipids, amino acids, carotenoids and terpenoids . In this paper, we review the importance of flavor , classification of volatile compounds , volatile compounds of major fruits , important flavor genes and QTLs discovery in tomato and major routes leading to volatile compound formation. Key Words : Fruit
1. Sample Collection Fermented milk products i.e. curd and lassi samples were purchased from a local dairy for isolation of lactic acid bacteria. Spoilt fruit samples were collected from local fruit market for isolation of spoilage-causing organisms. Good quality pineapples were purchased from the same fruit market for the preparation of juice.
The most quality parameter included mass, size, shape and colour. With regard to fruit, several approaches for mass estimation have been developed, example for apples (Tabatabaeefar and Rajabipour, 2005), pomegranate (Khoshnam et al., 2007) apricorts (Naderi-Boldaji et al., 2008) and citrus (Omid et al., 2010). Meet consumer demand, need for quick and accurate methods for quality assessment of fresh fruit increasing constantly. Study shown comparison of three different models for mass estimation of mango fruit (Nam Dokmai) calculated by simple linear regression (SLR), multiple linear regressions (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). Dimension of length, maximum width and maximum thickness were manually measured and included parameter for model building.
The major phytoconstituent in Tinospora cordifolia include tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, heptacosanol, clerodane furano diterpene, diterpenoid furano lactone, tinosporidine, columbin, b-sitosterol. Berberine, palmatine, tembertarine, magniflorine, choline and tinosporin are reported from the stem of the plant [23, 24]. A rearranged cadinane sesquiterpene named tinocordiside, consisting of tricyclic skeleton with a cyclobutane ring, has been isolated from the aqueous fraction of T. Cordifolia . The new clerodane furano diterpene 2 with the molecular formula C20H20O8, has been isolated from the stems of the plant  . A new daucane type sesquiterpene, tinocordifolin, has been isolated from the stem of Tinospora cordifolia.
The Kamias, is almost the same as Carambola but quite different in appearance , manner of fruiting, flavor and uses. The only strictly English names are “Cucumber Tree” and “Tree Sorrel”. The chemical constituents of Kamias include amino acids, citric acids, vitamin A, phenolics, potassium ion, sugar and
The presented materials are rice starch and monggo bean starch. These starches are not commonly used to create a plastic, although it is possible for them to be used because of the two Finnish researchers who created a rice starch bioplastic with results having the product highly strong and transparent (plasticnews.com, 2014). Monggo bean starch can be also used, and is possible for modification just in case (Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications, 2011). It is hypothesized that the two starches can be combined in order to produce the said bioplastic, and can be highly strong and reliable than other made bioplastics. But since there are no articles or past studies about this topic, the first main goal is to determine whether the starches are really suitable as a combination.
Bhadaiyan and Busila are found in Sri Lanka and Chompa Gob, Handia, Khaja, and Safeda are found in Singapore. Proximate composition Studies are done on proximate composition of jackfruit which has shown that the different variety of jackfruit varies in their proximate composition. Studies have also shown that the amount of carbohydrates and proteins in the seeds vary, depending on the variety of the jackfruit although they are from the same region. The complete chemical composition of different parts of the fruit has not yet been reported and only partial information is available (Table 1). ).