Surgery is done in patients who have severe pain, disability, neuropathy or malignancy. Etiology- Spinal stenosis occurring congenitally is due to segmentation failure, achondroplasia or due to incomplete closure of vertebra arch. Developmental anomalies
The history of Spina Bifida goes back almost 12,000 years. Professor Nicholas Tulp from the 16th century has study this disease and its symptoms. He was the one who introduce the name “Spina Bifida.” There are three types of Spina Bifida defect are: Occulta, Meningocele, and Myelomeningocele. Spina Occulta is the mildest type of the disease. According to UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital, vertebrae are malformed but the spinal cord and its covering are undamaged.
Stephen A. Rails, Gary R. Warnock in 1985 8 reported a 62-year-old male patient who had a varied medical history and oral lesions consistent with stomatitis areata migrans. The stomatitis areata migrans affected essentially all oral soft tissues, including the gingival tissues which were rarely involved. The gingival involvement was documented by clinical and histologic means. In our case the clinical appearance of the lesions remained consistent with SAM of the gingiva, with no concomitant dermatological problems or systemic diseases. Management Since the etiology was unknown the treatment is empirical.The patient was reassured as to the benign nature of the process.
Involvement of these nerves gives these patients the characteristic mask-like face with adducted eyes and down-turned mouth angles prohibiting voluntary facial movements 3, 4 .Dysfunction of cranial nerves III through XII is common, in particular glossopharyngeus (IX) and hypoglossus (XII) 4. This condition can be diagnosed early after
Major symptoms caused by CES effect the eyes (either bilateral or unilateral colobama), ears (crimped appearance and ear tags), craniofacial region (malformations of the skull and face), anal region (anal atresia and other malfunctions around the area), heart, and the kidneys (underdevelopment or absence of kidneys). Shorter stature and insufficient levels of growth hormones are a common symptom as well. Rarer malformations can effect almost every other organ. Behavioural problems can occur, but are not characteristic of CES. Mild to severe mental impairment is rare for patients suffering CES, but not
Mandibular fractures are common in young men for a variety of reasons with the most obvious being due to physical altercations. Factors that tend be positively correlated with these fractures include the use of alcohol, conducive environments and lower socioeconomic statuses. The mandible is shaped like the letter U and the center of this bone is referred to as the symphysis. Horizontally, the body of the mandible contains the alveolar processes, which are responsible for bearing teeth. This horizontal
There are many different types of braces in today’s world. People of all ages, ranging from 12 to 42, are wearing them now. Each person is different when it comes to braces. Each mouth in this world is different, some people need more spacing in their mouth and some need to just close gaps. In many cases, people just need to straighten their teeth or fix a crooked tooth.
Hiring a Child Life Specialist to work with pediatrics and be present during imaging sessions or non-invasive procedures, in place of using anesthesia, can limit a child 's exposure and aid in emotional health. Child Life Specialists understand the different emotional and cognitive stages of children, and can better prepare them and their family members for procedures based on developmental and cultural needs (Brewer et al., 2006). Several studies have shown that "children who received preparation, rehearsal, and supportive care were significantly less distressed and more cooperative" during procedures (Brewer et al., 2006, p. 14). Likewise, parents were more pleased with their hospital experience when questions were answered, misconceptions were alleviated, and attentive care was given. (Brewer et al.,
Autonomic symptoms can be seen in all forms of pSS-associated neuropathy. Abnormal pupillary responses (e.g. Adie’s pupil) and orthostatic hypotension were not only frequent in the sensory ataxic neuropathy group (12,17), but can also be seen in the small fiber sensory and trigeminal groups (12). The pathologic basis for pSS-associated autonomic neuropathy is unclear, but some cases appear to be due to an autonomic ganglionopathy (12); interestingly, Adie’s pupils are believed to be caused by ciliary
Type 2 of Gaucher Disease, also known as acute neuronopathic Gaucher Disease, affects the central nervous system and symptoms are faster to appear. This type affects a human from infancy and is very life threatening. Humans that are diagnosed with type 2 usually do not live past infancy. In contrast of type 2, type 3 of Gaucher Disease (chronic neuronopathic Gaucher Disease) is slower and symptoms show later in childhood. Type 2 and 3 share similar signs and symptoms and they include abnormal eye movement and growth, seizures, enlarged spleen or liver as well as brain problems.