An increase in amount of needling decreases the fabric weight produced from a particular web weight per square unit. The decrease in fabric weight/square unit is due to the drafting and spreading of fibers during punching, which increases as needling is increased. As the number of needle penetrations are increased, increased fiber locking causes a decrease in thickness. So when the needle is withdrawn, it resists the fibres to bounce back to their original
CHAPTER - 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Mechanism of Auto - Piecing in other spinning methods: 2.1.1 Rotor Spinning: Rotor spinning is based on the principle of open end spinning where the fibre continuity between the feed and the twisting is broken. The opened fibres are condensed to the required linear density and given true twist. Rotor spinning production rate is 4-8 times that of ring spinning. The rotor yarn is regular with fewer imperfections. Due to the breaking of the yarn during spinning normal piecing operation happens.
If steel wool is made of fine strands of steel, and steel is a form of metal, metal is known to be a good conductor of heat because of the close packing of the metal ions in the lattice and the delocalised electrons that can carry kinetic energy through the lattice. That’s why steel wool was predicted to be the best insulator to keep heat in and the stubby was predicted to be the best cooling insulator. THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE(S) The independent variables can be changed such as the different types of materials used which are the steel wool, the bubble wrap and the stubby. THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE The dependent variable is the type that can’t be changed. In this practical the dependent variable is the temperature.
Running Head: FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTINUOUS ELECTROSPINNING NANOFIBER YARN 1 FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CONTINUOUS ELECTROSPINNING NANOFIBER YARN. 11 Fabrication and Characterization of Continuous Electrospinning Nanofiber Yarn Students name: Institutional Affiliation Abstract Nanotechnology is a quickly developing multidisciplinary field of research joining different divisions including nanofiber innovation wherein sinewy materials are created at nano scale. Materials in nanofiber frame prompt predominant capacities as well as give a technique to convey capacities to higher request structures. Electrospinning is an appealing procedure equipped for delivering
This tends to generate frictional forces between neighboring warp threads in the loom during shed formation and also between yarn and certain loom parts such as reed, heald eyes etc. The effect would be that the rough coating of size would come off the yarn and subsequently lead to yarn breakage in the loom. Therefore it is necessary to make the yarn surface smooth. The softener thus performs the dual function making the yarn flexible and smooth. In other words it also acts as a lubricant.
2.2 Reinforcement 2.2.1 Woven mat This is a bi-directional reinforcement, obtained by weaving or textile operations using strands running in both directions warp (longitudinal) and fill (transverse) and fibres remain parallel to each other. Woven roving may be specified by the end count (number of ends per centimeter in the warp and fill direction), thickness depends on the number of strands grouped to form one
Sewing needles are believed to be around already thirty thousand years. The insights regarding sustainability from the long tradition have been noticed and translated for the developing entirely new area of smart textiles. The aim is to regain some of the long-lived principles such as quality, individualised approach (tailoring) and value for handwork that got neglected when moving towards efficiency and standardisation. Smart textiles allow new values and ways of use to emerge into the textile industry. With their dynamic properties and collaborative approach (Bhömer, Tomico, Kleinsmann, Kuusk, & Wensveen, 2012) they call for a radical change in the garment industry.
The result is a rainbow of vibrant patterns that appear to float on a shimmering surface. What’s remarkable in this weaving technique is that the artisan does not sketch or outline the design on the fabric but instead, hand draws it on a graph paper and placed it underneath the loom before starting the weaving process. The craft has seen a sharp decline since the 19th centuy but is now being revived by the efforts of dedicated organizations across India. Jamdani requires the most lengthy and dedicated work by artisans on