The Effect of Sugar Concentration on CO2 Production by Cellular Respiration in Yeast Introduction In this lab, our main focus was to find how sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates. This was to simulate the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is the process that cells use to transfer energy from the organic molecules in food to ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate). Glucose, CO2, and yeast (used as a catalyst in this experiment) are a few of the many vital components that contribute to cellular respiration. Sugar/ glucose is an important carbohydrate that can be made during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. Carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product when energy is released by the breaking down of glucose. This can be used by plant cells in the process of photosynthesis to form new carbohydrates. Yeast is a single-celled fungus that can break down sugars (glucose) to help produce carbon dioxide. Research Question How does sugar concentration affect yeast respiration rates? Hypothesis If I increase the sugar concentration then the yeast will produce more CO2 because the …show more content…
Next, weigh out 5 grams of sugar and 1 gram of yeast. Once in proportions, add it to test tube A. Thoroughly mix around the sugar, yeast, and tap water. You can do this by shaking the test tube gently. Make sure you do not turn it upside down. Then, cover the top of the test tube with a balloon and gently place it into a 400mL beaker filled up about half way (about 250mL) with water. Place the the beaker onto a hot plate that is on a low heat setting (about setting 3). Every 5 minutes for 20 minutes, measure the circumference of the balloon and record it in Data Table A. You can measure the circumference of the balloon by looping a piece of string around it then using a ruler to measure the string’s length. Record the data in the data
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Many organisms use energy to perform their cellular functions. That energy comes from the energy that is stored in food then converted to adenosine triphosphate or ATP. ATP can be obtained with or without oxygen, aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product while anaerobic respiration produces Ethanol (C2H6O) or Lactic acid (C3H6O3). In aerobic respiration the “CO2 produced during cellular respiration can combine with water to produce carbonic acid.”
Experiment 1: Materials: • Alka-Seltzer tablets • Empty and clean water or soda bottles (12 oz to 24 oz) • Balloons • Water • Clock • Stove top Procedure: 1. Pour a sufficient amount of water (about 16 oz) into a small pot and place on the stove at high heat. 2. Watch the clock and after 30 seconds take the water off the heat.
Sucrase activity increases with increasing sucrose concentration Materials and Methods Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable pH 3. Controlled Variables temperature, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity 1.
Essay 79: Mitochondria Mitochondria are organelles found exclusively in eukaryotic cells, meaning protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals. The term 'mitochondrion' is derived from a Greek word meaning thread. This accurately describes their appearance in the light microscope, as barely visible thread like structures. Following the invention of the electron microscope, scientists learned that mitochondria have a complex structure that allows them to harness metabolic energy in a useful form. As an aside, prokaryotic cells (eubacteria, blue-green algae, and archebacteria) lack mitochondria but maintain a strong evolutionary kinship with them.
Dry ice is one of the coldest and most dangerous kinds of ice you’ll ever see. Dry ice can be made by blowing the fire extinguisher into a pillow case. Dry ice exerts carbon dioxide when it goes through sublimation. Sublimation is when the surface particles of a solid gain enough energy that they form gas. During Sublimation, particles of a solid.
This process happens when it takes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and ATP to produce
Put the caps on the bottles and shake them until all the sugar is dissolved. Testing the Sugar Solutions All of the solutions should be the same temperature before testing Place the hydrometer in the 0% sugar bottle, record your reading in your notebook Repeat this step for the 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% sugar solutions. Rinse and dry the hydrometer between readings. Testing the Soda and Iced Tea Place the hydrometer in soda 1(coke).
My hypothesis was confirmed because the yeast took a little amount of time to find the sugar since there was more yeast in the mixture than sugar. Once the yeast finds the sugar we saw a big jump in the CO2 production, meaning the yeast is consuming the sugar at a fast rate. But, once all of the available sugar is gone from the solution, we saw an abrupt stop. This abrupt stop was because there was no longer any sugar remaining for the yeast to consume so the production of the yeast by-product, CO2, halted and we no longer saw an increase in the air space. The standard deviation of the first part of the experiment compared to the standard deviation of the second experiment that we created are surprisingly accurate to what they should be.
An integral part of the study of biology is the study of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, which are both essential processes in living things. Without these pathways, living things would not survive as the intricate methods of converting energy into fuel are conceived in these two processes. The main purpose of both of these concepts are to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that contains the energy to fuel organisms. Though similar in goals, photosynthesis and cellular respiration have a lot of differences as well. The main difference between the two is that photosynthesis occurs solely in plants but cellular respiration occurs both in plants and other living organisms.
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (yeast)is a single cell eukaryotic organism that is a fungi. It digests food to obtain energy for growth and gets it mostly from sugars like sucrose, fructose and glucose and maltose. When sugar is present, yeast conducts fermentation to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide by creating a chemical energy. In yeast, high sugar concentrations and high specific growth rates trigger alcoholic fermentation, even under fully aerobic conditions.
For example, fermentation occurs in yeast in order to gain energy by transforming sugar into alcohol. Fermentation is also used by bacteria, they convert carbohydrates into lactic acid. Ethanol fermentation is done by yeast and certain bacteria, when pyruvate is separated into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol fermentation has a net chemical equation: C6H12O6 (glucose) > 2C2H5OH (ethanol) + 2CO2 (carbon dioxide). This process of ethanol fermentation is used in the making of wine, bread, and beer.
Background Information: Yeast fermentation is directly affected by the change in temperature, because the rate of chemical reactions is affected by temperature. If the yeast has been exposed to its optimum temperature (66.667 degrees Celsius) then it will give off the highest carbon dioxide production. As the temperature gets higher, the yeast will produce more carbon dioxide, until at some point carbon dioxide production will decrease, that is when the yeast cells have become denatured due to the increase in temperature. Chemical reactions
There are several reactions occur when there is plenty of oxygen present. Then the energy released is used by the yeast for growth and activity. However, when the oxygen supply is limited, the yeast can only partially breakdown the sugar. Alcohol and carbon dioxide are produced in this process known as alcoholic fermentation. The fermentation occur when the carbon dioxide produced in these reactions.