Pathogens are biological agents; generalized as single cellular microorganism that can vary from virus, fungi or bacteria they are commonly the first link to the chain of infection. Through several substrates and pathways these biological agents invade the host and procreate disrupting the normal physiology of the multi cellular organism, resulting in illness or disease. They are so adaptable they can affect unicellular organisms from biological kingdoms. There are thousands of different pathogens that have unique types of infection or parasitism. However they also have common traits, all successful pathogens access the host through several ways, in doing so invades the host defences allowing for replications and creating a permissive niche.
The Plagues and Vector-Borne Diseases that Should be Considered Plagues Plague. What is it? In Layman terms, it is basically the transmission of potential life threatening bacteria from the environment to human beings. Plague infected organisms are highly contagious and the chances of surviving from plague are also slim as often there is either lack of proper medical attention or not having a cure for the particular plague . Recently there have been various strains of bacteria that have acted as plague bacterium as they have similar characteristics as the original plague had.
The argument that all viruses are deadly is incorrect. In the Hot Zone, Preston explained how Ebola and Marburg caused an epidemic that killed over hundreds of people and animals. In the novel, Preston also mentions smallpox and malaria. Being diseases, there are cures for all of them which overtime will eventually prove to be not deadly. Although hundreds of lives were lost against the virus, there came a cure later on.
My assigned book is the hot zone by Richard Preston, the book demonstrates about a highly contagious and lethal virus that is known as “Ebola virus” that is divided into two types the Ebola Zaire and the Ebola Sudan. The writer also mentioned about other filo viruses such as the Marburg virus and rabies. The hot zone book illustrates the origins of the virus and how it started to disperse from one person to another or from a region to another. And how epidemiologists, scientists and doctors discovered about the origin, structure, the effect on the body, symptoms that it can cause, treatment or cure and the nature of the pathogen. As well as several cases of different patients that had an experience of the disease without knowing the actual
There's five different mutations of the Ebola virus: Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Taï Forest Ebola, Ebola Reston, and Bundibugyo Virus (“Ebola” 1). With so many different symptoms, which require a different attack. The Ebola virus is complex, making it even harder to fight. Ebola has intense symptoms, High fatality rates and no cure. “In humans, certain Ebola viruses can cause fatality in 50 to 90 percent of cases” (“Ebola” 1).
Chicken pox is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. It is a relative of the herpes virus and highly contagious and is predominately a childhood disease. The disease can be spread by airborne means through coughing and by contact. The disease may also be spread by those that have developed shingles which is a secondary infection of the varicella-zoster virus that develops with age. Anyone that has had chickenpox can develop shingles.
There has recently been an outbreak of a new disease in South America known as Ashella schmiddy. Recent studies that have been released have shown that A. schmiddy is a highly infectious flesh eating bacterium. A. schmiddy is a Gram Negative(-) bacillus, and it’s preferred portal of entry is the skin. It has been proven that once the bacteria is introduced to even the smallest cut or abrasion on the skin, infection quickly follows. One thing that makes this new disease so worry-some is the number of invading microbes that it takes to infect 50% of the population, which is only 15-45 cells, which is an extremely low dosage.
Hershey-Chase: Scientists Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase did an experiment in 1952. this experiment was named the “Hershey-Chase Experiment”. During this time period most people did know DNA in a protein (which is called a capsid) was a virus. They also knew that viruses could replicate by taking over a host cell through its metabolism function. Through this they would create more viruses. Most people believe that all of the viruses that enter our body make us ill.
For example, on page 94, Nancy Jaax realizes that Ebola can be transmitted through air, “It probably traveled through the air in aerosolized secretion. That was when I knew that Ebola can travel through the air.” However, on page 95, it goes to Mr. Yu G., a victim of Ebola, and how he died from it, “ Yu. G. went into shock and died with blood running from the orifices of his body … Mr. Yu. G. was the first identified case, the index case, in an outbreak of an unknown virus.” This causes a lot of confusion and made me easily forget about things that previously happened in the book. This has nothing to do with the last page we ended on and it frustrated me throughout the book that this happened continuously.
In February of 1952, Jonas Salk announced that he had developed the world’s first polio vaccine, but couldn’t administer it until further testing. The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis created by Franklin D. Roosevelt sought after the aid of Dr. Gey and his cells. A Gey knew that HeLa cells were unlike any human cell and with testing found out that HeLa cells were more susceptible to the polio virus than any other