After reading Isabelle Knockwood’s book Out of the Depths, residential schools really opened my eyes on what really happened to the Aboriginal peoples who were sent there. Knockwood did a very good job explaining what she went through during the long 11 years that she was at the residential school. It’s still hard to believe that human beings would do that to other humans.
Although many view these schools as events that occurred a long time ago, in truth the last residential school closed only two decades ago. (Hanson, 2016, para. #18) Residential school syndrome is a term created by a psychologist called Charles Brasfield and it refers to a disorder experienced by survivors of the residential school system. This disorder is similar to post-traumatic stress disorder, but with a much more cultural focus that can completely change the behaviour of those affected. (Brasfield, 2016, para. # 2) The effects of what transpired in that system are still being felt generations later from descendants of those who were in residential schools or even residential school survivors themselves. (Hanson, 2016, para. #19) Generations of aboriginal youth had to grow up in situations with no stable and nurturing family to take care of them, and many therefore lack the skills needed to parent their own children. (Hanson, 2016, para. #19) The trauma sustained in residential schools has caused a serious increase in domestic abuse and violence that results in broken homes. The cycle of abuse has continued years and years later, still causing disruption in Aboriginal families. (Hanson, 2016, para. #20) It was found that among indigenous people aged 10 to 44, the primary cause of death that is responsible for almost 40% of the mortalities is suicide and self-inflicted injury. There are also seriously high rates of alcoholism and substance abuse found on reserves. (Hanson, 2016, para. #20) Though the residential schools may not be the only cause of this, it is certainly the root of many problems for Aboriginal individuals and the healing process will be a long
There has long been significant historiographical and popular controversy about the conditions experienced by students in the residential schools. While day schools for First Nations, Metis and Inuit children always far outnumbered residential schools, a new consensus emerged in the early 21st century that the latter schools did significant harm to Aboriginal children who attended them by removing them from their families, depriving them of their ancestral languages, through sterilization, and by exposing many of them to physicalleading to sexual abuse by staff members, and other students, andenfranchising them forcibly.
During the American Colonial period, the primary focus of colonists was to establish their own settlements in order to survive in the new continent. However, many of them believed that it was their responsibility to Christianize and civilize Native Americans. The educational institutions they established became the forerunners of the boarding schools which arose later in the 19th century both in the United States and in Canada (Stout 1). The aim of these schools was to resolve the so called “Indian-Problem” and to assimilate American Indians by separating Native children from their families and teaching them the American or the Canadian way of life (Trafzer, Keller and Sisquoc 14). Children in boarding schools were taught to be ashamed of and to reject their cultural heritage, ancestors and spiritual traditions (Chansonneuve 43). Moreover, boarding schools were usually underfunded, which had a negative impact on numerous aspects of school life and on the health of children (Daniels, 151). Therefore, with their harsh discipline and poor living conditions, boarding schools had damaging effects on Native people’s lives, and they contributed to many of the problems Native Americans have to face the present-day both in the U.S. and in Canada.
The TRC’s “The History” author appeals to logos through the use quantitative findings. The use of logical evidence from the collection of testimonials made by former residential school students is an effective way to aid the persuasion of a reader. Throughout “The History”, the author describes the memories of known First Nations peoples Frederic Ernest Koe, Marlene Kayseas, Lily Bruce and many others. In addition, the author quotes Vitaline Elsie Jenner’s use of ‘kaya nakasin’ (TRC, 2015, p.38) in describing her experience with residential school. The author’s example that contains the use native language reaffirms his credibility and detailed knowledge of the
Residential Schools was an enormous lengthening event in our history. Residential schools were to assimilate and integrate white people’s viewpoints and values to First Nations children. The schools were ran by white nuns and white priests to get rid of the “inner Indian” in the children. In residential schools, the children suffered immensely from physical, emotional, sexual and spiritual abuse. Although the many tragedies, language was a huge loss by the First Nations children. One of the worst punishments in residential schools was for speaking their own language. The use of residential schools on First Nations has led to substantial loss of the indigenous languages, therefore, causing further cultural losses to First Nations people.
In conclusion when implementing a learning program many factors need to be considered. As a result of colonisation Aboriginal peoples today still face or deal with issues such as ‘stolen generation’, loss of land and culture, poor health and life expectancy and deaths in custody. As an educator, I would continue to increase knowledge to enrich all children’s development in the area of cultural awareness by developing programs that support an understanding in the below major events:
“And yet where in your history books is the tale/ Of the genocide basic to this country 's birth/ Of the preachers who lied, how the Bill of Rights failed/ How a nation of patriots returned to their earth.” This quote succinctly describes the suffering Aboriginal peoples have endured since European settlers arrived in North America and the lack of education about Residential Schools in Canada. The history of Residential Schools is important to the future of Canada and to understand Canada’s past.
Who is the single greatest writer of American literature? Furthermore, what text upholds said writer as the greatest? Most people would argue that perhaps Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, or even William Faulkner are top candidates for the title of the greatest writer in American literature. However, how many people would nominate a woman? How many people would nominate an indigenous woman? Not many people would argue that Zikala-Sa’s “The Soft-Hearted Sioux” qualifies her as the single greatest writer of American literature.
Savage Inequalities by Jonathan Kozol is an in-depth analysis of America’s public school system and the problems that encompass it. Kozol’s book examines some of the poorest public schools in the United States and attempts to explain how the school or school district plummeted so far into the depths of poverty. Kozol believes that the biggest problem public school faces is segregation, which is still very real in many parts of the United States. Racism and a lackadaisical attitude toward the education of minority groups in America are the roots of the problems that public schools face. In his book, Jonathan Kozol visits a multitude of schools across the country, from poverty-stricken schools to affluent schools.
the government pursued the schooling to first nations to make them “economically self-sufficient” with its underlying scheme(Miller)
Over the past few decades, there has been many distinct perspectives and conflicts surrounding the historical context between the Indigenous peoples in Canada and the Canadian Government. In source one, the author P.J Anderson is trying to convey that the absolute goal of the Indian Residential School system in Canada has been to assimilate the Indian nation and provide them with guidance to “ forget their Indian habits”, and become educated of the “ arts of civilized life”, in order to help them integrate into society and “become one” with their “White brethren”. It is clearly evident throughout the source that the author is supportive of the Indian residential school system and strongly believes that the Indian residential School System
government on the Native society was boarding schools that began in the late 19th century. Native children, as young as five years old, were taken from their families off the reservations thousands of miles away to boarding schools. One of those boarding schools was the Carlisle Industrial School, which opened in 1880, founded by Captain Richard Harry Pratt. The sole purpose of these schools was to assimilate the next generation of Native’s into the Anglo society. The boys were taught mechanical and agriculture skills, while the girls were taught domestic lessons such as sewing and cleaning. They were all taught to devalue their own people and traditions. The conditions were brutal as the children were beaten if they spoke their own language. They were not fed well, as many Native children died from malnutrition as well as disease and abuse (Hudson, Lecture 18). “Once I lost a dear classmate. I remember well how she used to mope along at my side, until one morning she could not raise her head from her pillow. At her deathbed I stood weeping, as a paleface woman sat near her moistening the dry lips (Calloway, 430).” Zitkala-Sa describes the death of one her classmates at the Carlisle boarding school in 1921 while still very young (Calloway, 428). The boarding schools started a chain reaction of the Native children not learning their own language or traditions, cutting hair, and the gender roles reflecting the Anglo-Americans. These
The idea that those who participate in these “everyday forms of resistance”, choose not to bring attention to themselves is also reinforced multiple times throughout the text. All these examples bring along questions that need to be answered: Where does power lie? Is this power narrowly or widely distributed? And, is power about formal political institutions or does it reside somewhere else?
Imagine being ripped apart from family members, culture, tradition, and labelled a savage that needs to be educated. Imagine constantly facing punishment at school for being one’s self. Unfortunately, these events were faced head on for many First Nations people living in Canada in the late 20th century. These First Nations people were the victims of an extensive school system set up by the government to eradicate Aboriginal culture across Canada and to assimilate them into what was considered a mainstream society.