Youth Violence Perspective

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CHAPTER TWO
2. Theoretical Perspectives on Youth Violence
2.1 Introduction
Youth violence is viewed in this study as a social problem rooted in structural and socio-cultural and socio-political influences, rather than as individual pathology or flawed interpersonal relations alone. Thus, because social values and cultural norms shape youth violence and provide meaning and direction for this phenomenon, researchers should consider cross-cultural studies and social group differentiation in youth violence manifestation, to be able to identify and apply appropriate and successful remedies, given the cultural diversity in Ethiopia.
2.2 The subculture of violence
It is possible to tackle this complex issue of youth violence and bring change
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First systematic and multidimensional typology on violence. In Rasheeduddin Khan, 1981, p.169). MAKE CHART BIGGER AND MORE LEGIBLE> USE COLOURS
2.4 Contributing factors to youth violence Social and psychological factors are usually some of the first examined in looking at youth violence, as shaped and influenced by the youth’s living environment, and its effect on patterns of behavior and decision–making Youth violence started to increase during the 1980s when physicians noticed a sizeable increase in youth victims of homicide (Furlong and Morrison, 2000). Interest in studying school violence stemmed from the interest in studying youth who committed generalized violence. As professionals in the medical field began studying youth violence, psychologists joined educators in the most convenient and logical place in which to observe and interact with youth, the school system (Furlong and Morrisson, 2000; Eisenbraun, 2007, p. 460). Initially, the educators’ interest in school violence was less than enthusiastic. From their perspective, increasing violence in individual campuses was difficult to detect and they did not want to be placed in a law enforcement role (Furlong and Morrison, 2000). However, youth and school violence continued to increase and to have a rising impact on overall crime levels in most parts of the world - for instance, in the USA (Osofsky and Osofsky,
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Nevertheless, in Ethiopia, the family remains the main source of behavioral and ethical codes of conduct for many Ethiopian youth, to a larger degree than in more modern societies. There is a core ideology of family roles and duties and Ethiopian culture continues to emphasize patriarchal values that reinforce traditional gender roles within the family context. The coexisting traditional and “western” norms in Ethiopia today, especially in schools, have created a complex reality for Ethiopian youth transition from childhood to adulthood.
Opportunities for higher education and to participate in the labor market are allowing greater economic independence for Ethiopian women. One outcome will be changes in sexual behavior, which has implications for violence. It is therefore very important at the secondary and preparatory school level to introduce lessons that prepare the youth for these changes and to teach them how to avoid violence, and how to resolve conflict
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