Titanium was first recognized in 1791 in the iron sand (FeO.TiO2) by William Gregor, an English clergyman, and an amateur mineralogist. After that similar observation was made in 1795 by a German chemist, Martin Klaproth who analyzed a mineral rutile (TiO2) and he named the element titanium after the Titans, the powerful sons of the earth in Greek mythological [Polmer (2006)]. Titanium is the fourth gorgeous metal after aluminum, iron, and magnesium. Extraction of titanium from its ores was not developed on a commercial scale until the Kroll’s process was developed in 1950. Today, a large number of titanium and titanium alloys are used in various applications like chemical and petrochemical industries as well as other consumer goods such as
It is white spongy gelatinous substance which does not dissolve in water. It is found in the nature as the mineral hydrargilite and reacts with stong bases only under heating. The melting point of that compound is 300oC. Its density is 2.1 - 2.7 g/cm3. Aluminum hydroxide is amphoteric which means that it reacts easily both with strong acids and strong bases.
α-Fe in α-FePO4 has a strength of 280 N/mm and also a hardness of approximately 80 Brinell. In pure iron, α-Fe is relatively stable when the temperature is below 1,670 °F. A very minimal amount of carbon can be dissolved in α- Fe and the maximum solubility is about 0.02 wt% at 1,333 °F and 0.005% carbon at 32 °F. The carbon is able to dissolve in the iron interstitially, with the carbon atoms being about twice the diameter of the interstitial "holes" and each carbon atom is surrounded by a strong local strain field. Thus, the resulting enthalpy of mixing is positive, which is unfavourable, but the contribution of entropy to the free energy of solution stabilises the structure for low carbon
CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Vol. 85. CRC press, 2004,p4-18 Zinc Zinc, an element with an atomic weight of 65, is classified as a Group IIB post-transition member of the periodic table. The Group IIB metals below zinc in the periodic table are cadmium and mercury ,Zinc is generally considered a relatively nontoxic metal .
The melting point of the product from the bromination of aniline was 119.8-121.90c, which is in the range of the melting point of 2,4,6-tribromoaniline, 120-1220c, as indicated on PubChem, Open Chemistry Database (pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). This verified the formation of the major products. Overall, one can say that the experiment was
Given the name endohedral fullerenes or endofullerenes, these trapped molecules have increased physical and electronic properties and open up a new world of applications in medicine, cosmetics and perhaps even superconductivity. There are two types of endohedral fullerenes in existence, which are endohedral metallofullerenes and non-metal doped fullerenes. Endohedral metallofullerenes are fullerenes that have been doped with electropositive metals through laser evaporation. These metallic atoms will transfer electrons to the surrounding cage and will also move off centre in the cage. There are usually 2 or 3 charge units in the fullerene cage, but this is difficult to determine accurately.
Water is one of the most efficient quenching media where maximum hardness is required, but it is liable to cause distortion and cracking of the work piece. Where hardness can be sacrificed, whale, cotton seed and mineral oils are used. These tend to oxidize and form sludge with consequent lowering of efficiency. The quenching velocity of oil is much less than water. To minimize distortion, long cylindrical objects should be quenched vertically, flat sections edgeways and thick sections should enter the bath first.
And they exhibit somewhat high thermal stability (about 300℃) and a remarkable chemical resistance105. Apart from the most important Fe-MIL-100 there are other non-toxic iron (III) carboxylate MOFs such as MIL-53, MIL-88A, MIL-88Bt, MIL-89, MIL-101_NH2 which was synthesised in biologically and environmentally favorable aqueous or ethanolic medium143. Synthesis of Fe-MIL-100 NanoMOFs
The molecular lattice/framework holds separate diatomic molecules which is existent in both molten and gaseous states – which means that its reactivity with heat causes it to sublimate from solid’s to vapor. Iodine’s properties consists a melting point of 113.5 degree Celsius and a boiling point of 184.35 degree Celsius. Iodine is the most beautiful and striking of all elements. As it’s a solid, when heated, it doesn’t melt, but it sublimes instead. The result of iodine vapor consists of a violet color and a strong odor that is irritating to a human’s sense of smell.
Stability and Storage conditions: Stable when stored at room temperature and dispersions are stable up to 1 year after manufacturing and stored at room temperature (RT) in tight containers. Incompatibilities: Acid and/alkalies Applications: Film coating of tablets which are resistant to gastric fluids. 4. POLYVINYL ALCOHOL  Description: It is a synthetic polymer which is water soluble and has excellent film forming adhesive and emulsifying properties. Solubility: Soluble in water (H2O) and insoluble in organic solvents like