* Obsolete substance. Preparation: Mercuric chloride can be obtained by the addition of hydrochloric acid to a hot, to concentrated solution of mercury (I) nitrate: HgNO3 + 2 HCl → HgCl2 + H2O + NO2 Mercury is one of the few liquid elements. It dissolves in oxidizing acids, producing either Hg2+ or Hg22+,
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
Acetylation Lab Summary Two versions of the same experiment were performed to assess the difference in reactivity of certain amines with acetic anhydride. Throughout both experiments, observations were made about the reaction progress. The starting materials and products were characterized using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and melting point. During the first week, I dissolved 0.512g of aniline in 8.5mL of water, and added 5.5mL of 1M HLC. During this step, I observed that there were bubbles in the solution, especially at the bottom of the beaker.
Determination of the rate law and activation energy of a chemical reaction requires a number of steps. By varying the concentrations of reactants in the iodination of acetone it was determined that the reaction is first order with respect to both acetone and hydrochloric acid concentration and zero order with respect to iodine concentration. The error in all parts of this experiment is relatively small. This reaction is fast enough to be performed in a reasonable amount of time, but not so fast that it is difficult to duplicate this
ACTH induces the formation of peroxidase in the adrenal of hypophysectomized rats, which is associated with the depletion of asorbate. An inverse relationship is observed. Sayers et al., (1948) showed that depletion of ascorbate with ACTH in hypophysectomized rats exhibits a time pattern relationship; the depletion sets in within 5 minutes of ACTH injection,reaches a point of maximum depletion at about 1-2 hrs., whereafter the ascorbic acid concentration starts building up again, showing a rebound at about 20-24 hrs. High level of AA in adrenal has been suggested to act as a restraint factor on steroidogenesis particularly in the early reactions of the sequence involving cholesterol conversion to progesterone (Hayano,et al.,1956). It has been proposed that inhibition of steroidogenesis by AA is chiefly affected through hydroxylase system, which is relieved when stimulated by ACTH (Kitabachi,
FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted to obtain the active site and to characterise the surface morphology of the APCs activated carbon (APCs AC) prepared through pyrolysis at 1073.15 K and the alkaline activation of NaOH. The independent variables effect such as contact time, Cu(II) initial concentration and the activator ratio in the ranges of 0-150 mins, 6.5-370.5 mg/l and 0.2-0.6 (NaOH:APCs AC), respectively on the Cu(II) adsorption capacity were investigated in the APCs activated carbon-solution (APCs ACS) system with 1 g the APCs AC in 100 ml Cu(II) aqueous solution with magnetic stirring at 75 rpm, room temperature of 298.15 K (± 2 K), at 1 atm and normal pH. As a result, Cu(II) adsorption capacity dramatically increased with
There are various negative health effects induced by chlorine that appear in animals and organisms in water and soil environments. However, all potential deicers have the same relative environmental impact. When all characteristics of the potential deicers are taken into consideration, the best road deicer was calcium
For ascorbate peroxidase assay extraction 241 buffer was supplemented with 1.0 mM ascorbic acid. The homogenate was centrifuged at 242 15,000×g for 15 min at 40C, and the supernatant was used as a crude enzyme extract. 243 Spectrophotometric determinations were performed using UV visible spectrophotometer 244 (UV-1700, Shimadju, Japan). 245 2.11.2. Estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity 246 SOD activity was estimated by its ability to catalyse NBT to formazan at 560nm 247 according to the method of Beyer and Fridovich (40).
Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method The total proteins present in the intracellular and extra cellular fluids were determined by Lowry’s method. The OD values were plotted in along with the standard values on to graph sheet to obtain the concentration of protein in the samples. 8. Assay of Proteases The protease activity of all selected Actinomycete strains were estimated at 36 & 48 hours of growth. Into a series of ten test tubes 1ml of casein was taken and another control tube containing 2ml of casein was taken.