China, up until the Qin Dynasty, consisted of independent states controlled by kings fighting each other for land and power. This time period was called The Era of Warring States, which lasted two hundred years. After this time, the Qin Dynasty rose to power. They conquered all other dynasties, and established a centralized government, unifying China for the first time. The dynasty that succeeded the Qin, the Han, continued the centralized government and they started a westward expansion that would encourage trade and cultural diffusion. The Qin and Han Dynasties were similar in that they both believed in a strong centralized government, which strengthened and unified their empires, but they differed in that the Qin followed the strict Legalism while the Han followed the more flexible Confucianism, and the way they interacted with outsiders; the Qin tended to be more defensive of outsiders while the Han were more interactive and wanted to build relationships with foreigners.
The Han Dynasty was founded by Liu Bang in 206 BCE and lasted for 426 years until corruption and weak leaders resulted in the breakup of the Han Dynasty into 3 kingdoms in 220 CE. The Han Dynasty was strong and had many achievements in its golden age. A golden age is a time of prosperity and new inventions in an empire. A golden age normally occurs when a new leader is selected to run the empire. The philosophy of government was Confucianism, and the style of government was a bureaucracy, which was when the emperor used many government officials to help him make decisions. The Han Dynasty was a very successful empire with many accomplishments in areas such as education, and literature. One of the Han Dynasty’s most reputable achievements was
The Religion of the Han and Yuan Dynasties were Buddhism, Daoism, and Confucianism. The religions of these dynasties affected the government and society greatly. During the Han Dynasty the major religion was Confucianism. Buddhism and Daoism were the main religions in the Yuan Dynasty. Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism all affected the Chinese government.
The Han Dynasty lasted from 206 BC up until 220 AD. The Han Dynasty was founded by Liu Bang. The Yuan Dynasty was about 1000 years later from 1271-1368. The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan, but he placed his grandfather on the imperial records as founder. The Han and Yuan dynasties were almost 1000 years apart, but they have many similarities.
The age which is known for China’s formation of dynasties. In the span between 200 BCE and 300 CE, there were two dynasties; the Qin and Han dynasty. Over the span of two dynasties, they continued and developed new economic changes, social structures, and cultural interactions.
The Qin dynasty was established by Qin Shi Huang after he united all of the governing states of China in 221 BCE. While China was in the late Warring States Period, Qin Shi Huang (personal name: Ying Zheng) conquered the six other states of China; Zhao, Wei, Han, Yan, Chu, and Qi, forming a merged country, all ruled by Qin Shi Huang. During the Qin dynasty, many developments were made that are very significant to Chinese history today. Chinese language was standardized, especially in writing. The Great Wall of China was also built under the rule of Qin Shi Huang and his son, Hu Hai. Also, a copper coin with a square hole in the middle began to be used as a standard unit of currency, and measurements became customary. Roads and canals, as well
While many cultures in the Neolithic Age developed in the Middle East such as Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley since 8000 B.C., the Chinese civilization evolved rapidly in under the Shang and Zhou dynasties. As any civilization in that period, providing safety and economic wealth were the main duties for any ruler; however, the Chinese early political system was little different than other civilizations. For instance, in Egypt, the pharaoh was viewed as a living God and his dynasty should rule until it is unable to. On the other hand, the Chinese believed in the Mandate of Heaven, a philosophical idea or a belief that heaven chooses the emperors to rule based on their ability to govern fairly and if they do not fulfill their obligations then they lose the Mandate and the right to be
Culture is a human phenomenon that is infinitely changing, evolving and being added upon. In East Asia, culture changed and stayed the same whether it be from contact with external forces such as foreign civilizations or changes in societal beliefs. This was never more evidently displayed than in China, which had many continuities and changes of its culture from 220 BCE to 1368 CE. From the beginning of 220 BCE to 1378 CE, Chinese culture changed in its outlook on certain classes and types of people. However, it stayed the same in its outlook of themselves and their own superiority. Culture in civilizations in East Asia changed when patriarchy in China strengthened seen through the popularization of foot-binding and the status of merchants elevating. Nevertheless, it also had continuities such as China’s very prevalent ethnocentric
The Shang Dynasty was located in the Ruins of Yin near the Yellow River, formerly Anyang in China. Although this was the definitive site, they moved six times while its 500 years of existence. The Shang persisted throughout 1050 BC-1600 BC, during the Bronze Age. A way archaeologists determined its chronology was by two ancient texts known as The Bamboo Annals and Records of the Grand Historian (1).
Ancient Mesopotamia"Land between the rivers" (3500 B.C.E) and Ancient China(as early as 3500 B.C.E) are two of the many civilizations in history. Both civilizations left evidence of their way of life and accomplishment Mesopotamia ranging from the 12- month calendar, plow, cuneiform, ziggurats and number system based of on 60 count. China from ink, pictographs martial arts, great wall of China, and the art of porcelain. Mesopotamia had several civilizations within its own such as Assyrians, Sumerians, Babylonians etc.
The Zhou dynasty was founded by King Wen of the Ji family in 1076 B.C, after the Shang dynasty ended. This dynasty had three specific achievements; it had a unique social hierarchy, a standardized spoken language, and an extensive time of reign. The Zhou dynasty’s standardized spoken language was considered a huge advancement in Chinese history and was later used throughout many Chinese dynasties. Language helps bond society together, which may be a contributing factor to the length of the Zhou Dynasty. This spoken language was one of the most well known accomplishments of the Zhou dynasty along with the Mandate of Heaven.
The Zhou dynasty 's political structure was very similar to the Shang Dynasty 's had been, with minimal alterations. Like the Shang Dynasty, Zhou had their king designate officials to govern the territories within the kingdom. Unlike Shang, the Zhou Dynasty possessed the "mandate of Heaven." This concept stated that the king is a representative of Heaven and that is how Heaven kept order throughout the universe. The king was both responsible for ruling with compassion and efficiency, as well as in a manner to keep the gods calm so that his people would be spared from natural calamities and bad harvests. To distinguish the difference between the dynasties, if the king failed his duties, he could now be overthrown and replaced by a new
The Hsia Dynasty considered the first dynasty in China. However this dynasty is legendary because there is little archeological evidence to support existence. It is dated from 2205 BCE to 1760 BCE. According to the legend Yu was the wise king who invented a way to control flooding of the Huang He River so that people could live there. Since there is very little evidence to support the story, the second dynasty, called the Shang Dynasty, is the first one recorded