However, discharge of the brine produced by the RO desalination process results in many environmental adverse effects, due to the high concentrations of metals and salts. Recovery and removal of elements from RO brine would decrease environmental benefits and have economic gains in the production of valuable metals . Le Dirach et al.  are listed magnesium as element that potentially economically for extraction. 3) Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine and seawater is one of the main sources of lithium production.
Manganese has wide range of oxidation state from +7 to -1, however, in aqueous solution, manganese with +2 oxidation state is most stable and common. Mn2+ can be easily oxidized to form Mn(acac)3 in the presence of acetylacetonate ions as the bidentate ligands are packed around manganese ion. Potassium permanganate solution acts as oxidizing agent to oxidize Mn2+ to Mn3+, as reaction equation shown below: MnO4- + 4Mn2+ + 8H+ 5Mn3+ +4H2O The oxidized Mn3+ is then reacted with 3 acetylactonate ions to produce Mn(acac)3. the purpose of second time adding sodium acetate solution is to neutralize acid produced during the deprotonation of acetylacetone which donated H+, as reaction equation shown
It was expected for the Zinc to undergo a change but it was unexpected for the solution to change, from light blue to clear. Zn(s) +2H+(aq) Zn2+(aq)+H2(g) Reduction of copper Sulfate: As more zinc was added, the color of the solution changed from a light blue to a foggy white. The zinc bubbled and changed from silver to red. After the solution stopped bubbling this meant that the reaction was then complete. Shown below is the final product.Usually during a chemical reaction it is understable for there to a noticeable change, which is why it was expected to see a foggy white color during the reaction.
Magnesium Magnesium is an element in the 12th group of the periodic table. When magnesium is solid it gives out a shiny grey colour. Magnesium reacts with oxygen very fast and easy making it highly combustible. The symbol for magnesium is Mg. When magnesium reacts with oxygen it gives magnesium oxide Magnesium + oxygen→magnesium oxide 2Mg+O2→2MgO When magnesium and oxygen react a bright, white light is formed.
Red and black phosphorus are considerably more passive in chemical reactions. The oxidation of white phosphorus occurs through a chain reaction. The oxidation of phosphorus is often accompanied by chemiluminesce; an occurrence whereby light is emitted during a chemical reaction and not producing significant quantities of heat. Phosphorus combines directly with all halogens. When heated with metals, phosphorus forms phosphides.
Tin added in small amounts to copper makes bronze. This results in bronze which is much stronger than both copper or tin. In pure metals, the atoms are arranged in orderly rows and columns. Each atom gives up some of its electrons to create a kind of sea of these randomly moving charged particles. This sea of electrons makes for flexible, metallic bonds that slide past each other, like in copper.
Chromium is a transitional element, with three stable forms. It is a neutrally charged stable form, but naturally occurs in the environment. Trivalent chromium is a +3 charge stable form of chromium that can be naturally oxidized from its neutrally charged version, occurring in the environment (Mertz et al., 1974; Barrett et al., 1985; Alexander et al., 1990). Hexavalent chromium is a +6 charge stable form of chromium which is the product of industry, and it is very toxic to living things. Hexavalent chromium may be reduced naturally in the environment to the less harmful trivalent chromium.
The solubility of CVD-ILs with CA and TA is less than CVD. This observation could be related with pH of final solution. pHs of final solution for CVD-ILs in HCl 0.2 M are 2.5-3 for IL-CA and IL-TA. According to the pKa of CA and TA (Table 1), they are partially in non-ionized form and synthesized ionic liquid cannot increase the CVD’s solubility against of the ionic liquid’s solubility in acetate buffer solution. Nevertheless a high concentration of chloride ion in solution because of fully ionization of counter-ions, the solubility improved in compared with CVD.
As mentioned in answer to question to 2b, ionic compounds have free mobile ions for conduction of electricity only in the molten state and in aqueous state. Hence, given substance is most likely to be ionic as it exhibits conductance only in these states. In addition to that, it has high melting point, which is characteristic of ionic compounds.  4) A lustrous grey – white solid melts at 1650°C. It is electrically conductive as both a solid and a liquid, but not soluble in either water or any organic solvent.
Abstract. Electrochemical method has been developed to produce hydroxyapatite (HA) powders. Synthesis of hydroxyapatite particles was carried out from a homogeneous solution. The homogeneous solution was contained of Na2H2EDTA.2H2O, KH2PO4 and CaCl2 on 0.25/0.25/0.15 M. Water reduction at cathode to form OH- ion is very substantial in formation of hydroxyapatite. The OH- ions causes the release of Ca2+ ions and change the equilibrium phosphate for the formation reaction of HA.