Review of Literature
Zoonoses are the infections that are transmitted to humans from a vertebrate host. Earlier, they include all the diseases that were shared by humans and animals as introduced by Rudolf Virchow in 1880. Later on, the word zoonoses represented only those diseases which were proven or had direct circumstantial evidence of being transmitted by an animal. Zoonoses are known to occur throughout the world and also to transcend across the boundaries. This affects the global economy and health. Changes such as urbanization, industrialization and deforestation have also known to have their effect in the change of the zoonotic diseases. Some diseases which were earlier to be considered to be limited to man have…show more content… Direct transmission from animals to human beings is common amongst the occupational groups who handle animals and animal tissue, such as butchers, veterinarians, cattle and pig farmers, rodent control workers respectively. Accidental infection to veterinarians has also been recorded in many studies. (Bolin et al, 1988). Farmers may be exposed to water contaminated by the urine of rodents or other animals while irrigating fields. Rice farmers, particularly when barefooted in the field may also be exposed to water contaminated by rodents or buffaloes, e.g. when ploughing. Occasionally, soldiers, hunters and hikers may also be exposed when wading through contaminated surface waters or swamps, walking on or through contaminated soil, mud or wet vegetation, or by contact with animals.
Laboratory staff involved in the diagnosis of and research on leptospirosis and other zoonotic research, and especially field workers are at high risk of exposure if proper precautionary measures are not taken. Although leptospirosis is often considered to be a rural disease, people living in cities may also be exposed particularly to rats. The risk of such exposure will depend on the living conditions as well as the level of hygiene both in the house and its immediate environment, and on the general hygienic and sanitary conditions in different areas of a city (WHO,