Acetic acid Essays

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    Acetic Acid Concentration

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    experiment aims to find the concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar sample by titrating it to a standardized NaOH solution, a base solution. A standardized 0.100 M NaOH solution was prepared from an available concentration of NaOH specifically a 1.00 M NaOH. The volume of the standardized solution (titrant) used which is 0.100 L was calculated using the M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 relationship. It was then gradually added to the vinegar solution until the acid-base reaction was completely neutralized.

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    Since the extraction temperature of acetic acid extraction prior to terephthalic acid production are desired at T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The temperature has been carried out since the aqueous solution that fed to extractor column is originally coming from the top product of distillation column in the upstream process, also keeping the temperature at 313.2 K to avoid the crystallization of acetic acid during the process. Therefore, the experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the

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    presence of sun light (photochemically) using isopropanol as the reducing agent in presence of acetic acid. Acetic acid is added to prevent the cleavage of benzopinacol to benzophenone and benzhydrol by the alkali derived from the glass container used for the reaction. Benzopinacol obtained in the first experiment is converted to benzopinacolone by heating under reflux (5 minutes) with glacial acetic acid containing trace amount of iodine dissolved in it. This reaction is known as pinacol- pinacolone

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    Photosynthesis Lab

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    maximum number of moles of acetic acid that can be adsorbed on the surface of the charcoal, per gram of charcoal. Methods A finely powdered charcoal is placed in an acetic acid solution, and some of the acetic acid molecules can be removed from the solution by adsorption on the surface of the charcoal solid. Equilibrium can eventually be established between the acetic acid adsorbed on the surface of charcoal and the unbound acetic acid in the solution. The amount of acetic acid adsorbed onto the surface

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    Conclusions In this experiment, acetanilide was synthesized via nucleophilic acyl substitution from both acetic anhydride and aniline. During this reaction, aniline acts as the nucleophile and acyl (CH3CO-) group from acetic anhydride acts as the electrophile. The hydrogen atom of –NH2 group is replaced by the acyl group. The crude product contained acetanilide, and acetic acid, which was the impurity. Recrystallization, which was used to purify the contaminated acetanilide, required a suitable

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    Apple Vinegar (ACV)

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    yeast and finally into vinegar. Like the normal vinegar apple cider vinegar also contains acetic acid and some lactic, citric and malic acid. Apple cider vinegar is in various color not like white vinegar, it is in light yellow color. This is often sold without pasteurization and filtration which is termed as ‘mother of vinegar’, there are some sediments remained at the bottom which consists of acetic acid bacteria. This unfiltered and unpasteurized vinegar is sold in some health food stores, online

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    equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color. To quench the reaction, the reaction mixture was transferred onto ice. NaOH was slowly added into the mixture, which resulted in acetic acid byproduct from the acetic anhydride reactant/solvent

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    Procedure :- A) Fischer Esterification 's Procedure ( Direct esterification of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol ):- 1- Choose any pair of these caboxylic acids and alcohols . When using excess alcohol, a molar ratio 4:1 is used in the procedure. 2- Mix 0.48 mol methanol with 0.12 mol butyric acid in a dry round bottom flask . 3- Add 0.05 moles of concentrated sulphuric acid to round bottom flask very slowly and carefully then put a magnetic stirrer . 4- Set up reflux system using a clean and

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    (4) Anthranilic acid (0.1M, 18g) was taken in acetic anhydride and refluxed under anhydrous conditions for 4 hrs. Excess of acetic anhydride was then distilled off under reduced pressure. Obtained product was immediately used for next step. Step-4 Synthesis of 2-Methyl-3-[5-(4-substituted)phenyl-1,3,4- oxadiazole-2-yl]- quinazoline-4(3H)-ones53 (5) To the mixture of benzoxazinone (4), 2-Amino-5-aryl -1,3,4-oxadiazole (0.1M) in 100ml of glacial acetic acid was added and refluxed

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    radioactivity added to the isolated synaptosomal fraction remains acid soluble. The finding that RNase does not release radioactivity from the synaptosomes-enriched fraction indicates that the preparation is not contaminated with free polyribosomes. Pronase appears to render the radioactivity from both the whole synaptosome-enriched and the final phosphoprotein residue ( Table 2 ) acid soluble, indicating that the label is initially attached to amino acids. Solubilization by alkaline phosphatase digestion proves

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    Trigonometry Lab Report

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    Drug Substance International Nonproprietary Name (INN) Levofloxacin Hemihydrate Chemical Name 7H-Pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid, 9-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-hydrate (2:1), (S)-.(-)-(S)-9-Fluoro-2,3-dihydro-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7Hpyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid, hemihydrates Generic name Levofloxacin Hemihydrate CAS Number [138199-71-0] S1.2 Structure and attachment for structure of drug substance

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    addition of inorganic acid solution; next, the mixture is evaporated, water is added and the mixture is extracted with ethyl acetate to isolate the product;

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    over the duration of time.
I predict that the more baking powder is added, the more gas will be produced because there is more vinegar to react with baking powder 
The chemical name for baking powder is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and vinegar is acetic acid

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    Carotenoid Lab Report

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    Title of Invention "AN IMPROVED PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF CAROTENOIDS FROM ENCYSTED HAEMATOCOCCUS CELLS" Abstract An improved process for the preparation of carotenoids from Heamatococcus cells characterized in simple method of extraction of said caratonoids by using acidified aqueous solution, which comprises suspending encysted Heamatococcus cells in acidified aqueous solution having concentration in the range of 0.01 N to N at a temperature range of 8-90° C for a period of 30 seconds to 15

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    the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture

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    Essay On Naked Egg

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    cup and carefully fill the cup with vinegar. Make sure that you completely cover the egg with vinegar. If the egg begins to float, be sure to have enough vinegar in the cup to mostly cover the egg. Once this is done you will have to wait for the acetic acid in the vinegar to react with the calcium on the egg shell. You will begin to see bubbles begin to form on the egg shell. These bubbles are made because the reaction is causing carbon dioxide to be released. For a good portion of the shell to be

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    H2o2 Reaction Lab Report

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    reaction mixture contained 1 mL of the eluate, 400 mL of 218 12.5 mM 3-(dimethylamino) benzoic acid in 0.375 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 80 mL 219 of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazoline hydrazone and 20 mL of peroxidase (0.25 unit). The 220 reaction was started by the addition of peroxidase and the increase in absorbance was

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    2.2.1 Preparation of sPEG from polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitanmonolaurate (tween-20) Star shaped polyoxyethylene (sPEG) was synthesized according to the literature with some changes [18]. Briefly, 8 g of polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearatev were dissolved in 20 ml of THF in a round bottom flask and then 1 g of KOH was added as hydrolysis agent. After refluxing about 24 h, the solution was concentrated and added to a mixture of acidic water/hexane (1 : 1). The aqueous phase in which the sPEG

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    It involves intravenous injections of a chelating agent, EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid), a synthetic amino acid. EDTA binds to heavy metals and minerals in the blood so that they can be excreted in the urine. Another intravenous agent used by some physicians for mercury detoxification is called DMPS (2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid). An oral chelating agent called Succimer (Dimercaptosuccinic acid, also known as DMSA) is FDA-approved for treatment of lead poisoning and is used by some

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    Extraction of β-caryophyllene Ground cloves will be used to isolate β-caryophyllene via steam distillation. 5g of ground cloves will be taken in a 500mL RBF(Round bottom flask) with boiling stones, 40mL of dH2O, and 3 to 4 drops of an antifoaming agent (to prevent violent boiling). Then, the contents of the flask will be heated on a heating mantle for an hour and followed by condensation of the distillate through a water jacket. Then allow it to collect in a graduated cylinder. Steam distillation

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