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    Discussion: End point in this acid-base titration experiment refers to the point where the chemical reaction has reached its conclusion and no additional titrant should be added. The end point of this experiment can be obtained when the indicator used changes colour. For example colourless to light pink when phenolphthalein is used and red to orange and subsequently yellow when methyl orange is used. Equivalence point, also known as stoichiometric point in an acid-base titration refers to the point where

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    Introduction: The acid-base titration experiment is the use of a titrant, an analyte, and an indicator. Titration is the slow addition of one solution of a known concentration (called a titrant) to a known volume of another solution of unknown concentration until the reaction reaches neutralization, which is often indicated by a color change.1 The titrate is what is later released into a beaker or flask that is filled with the analyte and indicator. The color change happens because of the indicator

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    Practical I: Acid-base equilibrium & pH of solutions Aims/Objectives: 1. To determine the pH range where the indicator changes colour. 2. To identify the suitable indicators for different titrations. 3. To identify the unknown acid. 4. To determine acid dissociation constant, Ka and pKa for the unknown acid. Introduction: Titration process is used in an acid-base experiment in order to determine the concentrations of solutions of acids and bases. Through the titration process, we are able to identify

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    principles, Brønsted-Lowry acid base theory demonstrates that an acid donates a hydrogen ions, while a base accepts hydrogen ions. Strong acids have the an easier ability to donate hydrogen ions compared to weak acids.The goal for Experiment 8 Acid-Base Equilibria: Determination of Acid Ionization Constants is to recognize how different amounts of quantitative values can alter the pH in a solution. This procedure was carried out by mixinging specific acid or base solutions together and comparing

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    conspiracy theory of secret Nazi 's base in Antarctica What people think of when they hear that there is a secret Nazi 's base in Antarctica? What people are doing at the location? Why did the Nazi want to build it there if they even did? Who is in control of Antarctica and makes the decision? What did the base in Antarctica do during the war? After the war what became of the Nazi base in Antarctica? It is believed the Nazi 's control and guarded a secret naval base in Antarctica that later the American

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    necessarily good-hearted people. When my parents were still married, we lived on the base itself. I’m going to break down the anatomy of a military Air force base, just in case you don’t know. There are many different kinds of military bases around the world. Some bases make planes; some bases are a pit stop for planes and heavy artillery. Robins Air Force Base, the one that I lived on in Georgia, was a refueling base. This meant that the sky above my head was always clouded by planes and jets. At first

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    Buffer Lab Report

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    Introduction Buffer is a solution that resists a change in pH when bases or acid are added. Solutions that are acidic contain high concentrations of hydrogen ions (H+) and have pH values less than seven. Buffer usually consist of a weak acid, and its conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid. The function of buffer is to resist the changes in hydrogen ion concentration as a result of internal and environmental factor. This buffer experiment is important so that we relies the important

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    ache, vomiting. Venigar contains a small percentage of ethanoic acid Ch3COOH. This practical aims to find out the concentration of the of the vinegar against a standard solution of sodium hydroxide soloution of concentration 0.1 mol dm3 through acid-base titration, the label on the bottle says 6%. The equation of the reaction between sodium hydroxide and ethanoic acid is as follows: CH3COOH + NaOH → CH3COONa + H2O We can measure the end point of titration process and we can

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    Titration Lab Report

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    The aim of this lab is to determine the concentration of a potassium hydrogen phthalate solution (HKC8O4H4) using acid‐base titration. Introduction: Titration is a technique that chemists use to determine the unknown concentration of a known solution (we know what chemical is dissolved, but not how much in a solution). Because we know what the chemical is, we know how it will react with other chemicals and we can use that reaction to determine the concentration of the solution by measuring the formation

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    Weak Acid Lab

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    water before titrating with the strong base NaOH. Titration is a technique in which a reagent of known concentration is slowly added to an unknown solution in order to calculate the concentration of the unknown. When a weak acid is titrated with enough of a strong base, the weak acid is converted into its

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    Explain the relationship between the ionisation of amino acids and pH |Structural diagram of the neutral structure| |Structural diagram of positively charged structure| |Structural diagram of negatively charged structure| Explain how the form of an amino acid, whether positively charged, negatively charged or neutral, depends of the pH of the solution ? If you increase the pH of a solution of an amino acid by adding hydroxide ions, if this is done then the hydrogen ions will then

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    Unknown Solid Acid

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    Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to titrate an unknown solid acid (KH2PO4) with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. After recording and plotting the data, the acid’s equivalence point will be recorded once the color changes. Using the equivalence point, the halfway point will be calculated, which is used to determine the acid’s equilibrium constant. The acid’s calculated equilibrium constant will be compared with the acid’s established pKa value. Eventually using the NaOH and the acid’s

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    Antacids Lab Report

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    This is done so that the bodies natural buffer system can turn the carbonic acid into its conjugate base, bicarbonate, which will lower the pH as well if needed. The sodium hydroxide would have reacted with the carbonic acid to produce sodium bicarbonate and water making the solution slightly basic. It had been seen that this did not occur since the solution was orange, and when the one drop of base was added, then the solution turned yellow meaning that the sodium hydroxide and carbonic acid had

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    It is type of condensation reaction, which involve the condensation of acidic anhydride and aldehyde in the presence of weak base (i.e. Sodium and potassium salt of the acid or trimethylamine) to give unsaturated carboxylic acid.(Equation-1)[1].In 1968 Perkin described the very first example of such type condensation reaction, involve the synthesis of coumarin by condensing the sodium or potassium salt of salicylaldehyde with acetic anhydride (Equation-2)[2].Generally such type of reaction is only

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    Balloon Blow Up Research

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    different heights. Other people would want to know which acid blows the balloon up more. Mixing the acid and the base is another form of a chemical reaction. The acid, the base, and the importance of the materials are the different subjects in the experiment. The first variable, in the experiment, is the acid. The acid is the type

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    Unknown Compounds

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    components of acid, base and neutral compound. The compounds were identified by melting point and matched up with the known melting points from a given list. In order to identify the compound it was important to separate by dissolving the mixture in an organic solvent which was not soluble in water, and then extracting the solution first with HCl, and then dilute sodium hydroxide solution. From the separation mixture, the aqueous layer were obtained and labeled as TT-1 (base), TT-2(acid) and TT-3

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    Arrhenius as substances that ionize in water to produce H+ (hydronium) ions, and bases as substances that ionize in water to produce OH- (hydroxide) ions (Chang, 2010). Arrhenius’s definition is known to be limiting thus, a broader definition was made by Johannes Bronsted. It is said that a Bronsted-Lowry acids are those that donate proton while a Bronsted –Lowry bases are those that accept proton (Bruice, 2005). When acids and bases react, a neutralization reaction occurs resulting to the formation of salts

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    of neutralization The purpose of this experiment is to determine the enthalpy change for the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl). Introduction A neutralization reaction is a chemical reaction where a base and an acid react with each other. The products will always be water and a salt. The balanced reaction equation for this experiment is the reaction below (Enthalpy of neutralization, 2018). 〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous

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    Theoretical plates per column Theoretical plates column were calculated from the data obtained from the peak. n = (5.54Vr2)/Wh2 Where, ‘n’ is number of theoretical plates per meter, ‘Vr’ is the distance along the base line between the point of injection and a perpendicular dropped from the maximum of the peak of interest and ‘Wh’ is the width of the peak of interest at half peak

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    Unknown Acid Molarity

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    process depends on concentration of known solution to another solution until the solute in the another solution completely react. Standard solution is the solution of known concentration that used in titration. In this experiment, NaOH was the titrant (base) however, the two analyte which used were HCl and H2SO4. The chemical reaction equations are molecular and ionic molecular equation for (NaOH) and (HCL) is: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) --> H2O (l) + NaCl (aq) The Net Ionic equation is: H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

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