The conflict standpoint is based on the idea that the society is comprised of various different groups who are in constant friction with one another for the access of scarce and valuable resources; these may include wealth, fame, power, or the authority to apply one’s own value system onto the general society. The conflict theorists argue that a conflict exists in the society when a group of people who believe that their interests are not being met, or that they are not getting a fair share of the society’s resources, work to counter what they perceive as a handicap or a
Every religion is characterized by certain features. They use certain symbols, ideas, rituals, ceremonies which aims to invoke the feeling of uniqueness, supremacy, awe and admiration. Religion has all the feature that qualifies it for social institution. It has a culture, certain ritualized practice, collective acceptance, normative behavior and a function and role to play. In fact religion as a social institution has a great impact on its member and is one of the powerful institutions of the society.
Conflict resolution is the process by which two or more parties engaged in a disagreement, dispute or debate reach an agreement resolving it (Grimsley, 2013). It can be argued that conflict has its origins in objective and subjective causes such as competition for external resources or it can arise when there is a clash between the internal beliefs, values, and interests of two parties. De Dreu and Weingart (2003) propose that conflict has been suggested to interfere with team performance and reduce satisfaction because it produces tension and distracts team members from performing the task as there are various indicators that impact on the team performance. Although conflict might have a negative impact in team performance however, conflict
Immigration today is a controversial issue for many, although immigrants are the core of this nation. America is formed and ingrained by histories of diverse cultures from all around the world. Multiculturalism is a debatable issue in America. Diverse people have many different views of things, similar or unalike, approve or disapprove. Some people think that multiculturalism is damaging, whereas some others think that multiculturalism is constructive.
Intergroup conflicts occur when there is a misunderstanding among different teams in the same organization. These individuals may have differing goals and interests and each individual now begins to compete with each other to express their ideas which then lead to a conflict. Intragroup conflicts occur among individual within the same team. Conflicts will arise when individual compete for power or authority and most importantly, resources which are limited.
Conflict is a process in which two persons or groups realize that their interests are not the same with the others or realize that they might be negatively affected by the other person or team (Mukherjee, 2009, p.239). Conflict can be created due to incompatible goals or which methods to use in order to achieve the goals. Conflict is a behaviour which has a purpose to hinder the achievement of a person’s goals (Mullins, 2005, p.96). Moreover, conflict disintegrates the normal and expected states of steadiness and harmony in an organization (Martin, 2005, p.746). In organizations there are types of conflict which may arise such as the intrapersonal, interpersonal,
Conflict is defined as an interactive state manifested in compatibility, disagreement or difference within or between social entities such as individuals, group, or organization (Tsega, 2000). This implies that conflict is the stage of disharmony between incompatible person and ideas or interests simply a clash. Conflict is an overt behavior that results when an individual or group of individual thinks a perceived needs of individuals has been frustrated or is about to be frustrated. Conflict occurs because individuals have different perception, beliefs and goals (Ritzer, 2008). Conflict is a common incident and quit frequent in human interaction.
According to Vazquez (2007), it is helpful to understand the source of potential conflict. Below are some common sources of conflict cited by Vasquez: Conflict type Description Values conflict Involves incompatibility of preferences, principles and practices that people believe in such as religion, ethics or politics. Power conflict Occurs when each party wishes to maintain or maximize the amount of influence that it exerts in the relationship and the social setting such as in a decision making process. Economic conflict Involves competing to attain scarce resources such as monetary or human resources. Interpersonal conflict Occurs when two people or more have incompatible needs, goals, or approaches in their relationship such as different communication or work styles.
For example, an employee may wrongly attribute to his or her supervisor a cut in the employee’s department budget, which may have been done by higher-level managers over the protest of the supervisor. Displaced Conflict This type of conflict occurs when the conflicting parties either direct their frustrations or hostilities to social entities who are not involved in conflict or argue over secondary, not major, issues (Deutsch, 1977). 2.8 Summary of literature review This chapter reviewed the literature relevant to this research study. The causes of organizational conflict were discussed and possible techniques available in managing organizational conflict. The literature also gave an insight into possible impact organizational conflict has on organizational performance.
The most common of such faults should recognize the existence of a large number of management levels, where information while passing from level to level is lost or distorted. Another drawback is the lack of stable horizontal linkages between departments. Another drawback is the presence of conflicts between different groups and units. Conflicts often inherent in the structure of the organization. Units or individual managers, are in conflict, not only can promote the rupture of communication links within the organization, but to use a communication network to achieve its goals in the fight with other units or leaders.
The ability of any human being to reflect on themselves and being adequately informed by one’s own thoughts and actions is an attribute associated with humans and highlighted in social cognitive theory. Humans are agents who act and function as self examiners of their functioning of thought processes. To make this effective it is required to devise reliable ways of differentiating between factual and accurate thinking. In self-reflective ways, humans create ideas and act on them and predict occurrences from them. They make judgments based on the accuracy of their thoughts try to change them accordingly.
Yet, it recognizes that self-interest and utility maximization tend to be in conflict with group interests. Already in A Treatise of Human Nature, Hume (1854) examines this particular problem. He tells the story of two neighbors and their intent to drain a meadow they shared. Noting that it is easy for the both of them to collaborate, Hume (1854) describes the difficulty in achieving said initiative once the number of people increases exponentially as “each [will] seek a pretext to free himself of the trouble and expense, and would lay the whole burden on others” (p. 311). Indeed, to achieve a group goal individuals may have to act altruistically and selfless rather than self-interested.
The groups or individuals involved then comes into conflict to attain the most of these resources, which brings forth hostile behaviors among all those actively involved in the conflict. • Value conflict is concerned with the varied preferences and ideologies that people have as their principles, these can be very different depending upon the background of each individual and the kind of environment on has been prone to. • Power conflict occurs when the individuals involved intends to maximize the influence they have on the other groups or the society as a whole. Power Conflict is a major contributor in interpersonal conflict and can happen between any 2 individuals, groups or even between 2 nations when they share some common interests. In other types of conflict, power is also evident as it involves an asserting of influence to another.
Conflict Conflict is the disagreement among different persons or individuals featured by hostility and antagonism. It is motivated by one party opposing another with an aim to perform a different opinion from the other party. The conflict elements contain different sets of principles as well as values, therefore, causing the conflict, (David et al., 2017). Intergroup conflict The type of conflict occurs due to misunderstanding among different groups within an organization. The conflict is experienced in different departments in an organization’s setting due to differences in their goal settings and interests, (Barney & Ouchi, 2015) The groups or teams may also experience the conflict due to the competition among them in addition to rivalry
In his “triangular” model of conflict and violence Galtung (1996) has states that if there are evident incompatible goals; like one group’s goal is blocked by the other group’s goal, contradictory attitudes; and violent behavior (physical and/or verbal) concurrently, there exists an intergroup conflicts. The more basic the blocked goals are- such as access to grazing land and other basic needs, the more likely the conflict will turn violent (Finlev,
Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Conflict is a clash of interests, values, actions, views or directions. Conflict refers to the existence of that clash. Conflict is initiated the instant clash occurs. Generally, there are diverse interests and contrary views behind a conflict, which are revealed when people look at a problem from their viewpoint alone. Conflict is an outcome of organizational intricacies, interactions and disagreements.
DIMENSION OF CONFLICTS There exists different ways of resolving a conflict in teams. The approaches depend on personality, social relations and the situation. The two types of dimensions of conflicts are: distribution and integration. Distribution is about the concern of one’s own outcomes. And integration is about the concern of the outcomes of others.
Conflict management Styles and their Consequences: A conflict can be best analyzed by observing its consequences and different behaviors of involved parties at different intervals of time. These observations are further categorized to different conflict styles. Some styles are explained as below: • Competing style: In this style, one’s own needs are prioritized over other’s needs. It also uses aggressive style of communication. Future relationships are not much cared about and it also observes usage of coercive power.