Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory The first content theory is one of the most popular theories of motivation and was developed by Abraham Maslow. His theory focused on the psychological needs of employees and is based on two principles. He proposed that individuals are "wanting beings" and that they are motivated to satisfy certain types of needs. The second premise of Maslow's theory is that individual needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Maslow's theory suggests that when a lower level need is satisfied, this need is no longer a motivator and the individual would then be motivated to satisfy the next need in the hierarchy.
Expectancy theory encompasses the mental process involved in choosing a behavior over another, based on the expectation from the results. Victor Vroom (1964) was the first to introduce an expectancy theory with direct application to work settings, which was later expanded and refined by Porter and Lawler (1968) and others (Pinder, 1987). Expectancy theory is more concerned with the interrelated factors that go into motivation and the way they relate to each other. That is, it basically is a process theory which is based on the idea that employees believe there are relationships between the efforts they put in their work, the performance they gain form the effort and the rewards they achieve from their effort and performance. In essence, the motivation behind a behavior is the desirability of the outcome.
Value expectancy model The expectancy is considered as a general concept in psychology, however, conversely in the health literature it is assumed as it is in the real world. In psychology, expectancy theory posits that satisfaction is expressed by a difference between what one received and expected or wanted to receive. However, expectations are made of “cognitive processes” and shaped by “previous experiences”, so it is dynamic, complex beliefs (Bowling et al., 2012). Linder-Pelz theory, value-expectancy model, is based on social-psychological theory as they proposed five social-psychological variables, “occurrences”, “value”, ”expectations”, ”interpersonal comparisons”, and ”entitlement” as determinants of patient satisfaction to explain
Expectancy Theory The expectancy theory in relation to work was first to develop by Victor Vroom (1964) this theory was further expanded by Porter and Lawler (1968). Vroom suggested that individuals deliberately elect a particular action based upon their desires to enhance pleasure and avoid pain (Vroom, 1964). The theory provides a process of cognitive variables that reflects individual differences in work motivation based on the assumption that people believe there are association between the effort they put in at work, the performance they accomplish, and the rewards they receive as a consequence of their effort and performance. Vroom postulated four assumptions and three components (Vroom, 1964): - People join organizations with expectations about their needs, motivations, and past experiences. (Vroom, 1964) - An individual’s behavior is a result of a choice based on expectancy calculations (Vroom, 1964).
Introduction Motivation is one of the drivers for individual to achieve certain goals. Same goes to the organizational that need motivated employees to achieve the organizational target. That is the reason why motivated employees are vital for an organization to be success in the long term of period. There are many ways to motivate employees and employees can be motivated intrinsically and extrinsically. Motivational theories have two differences perspectives which are content and process theories.
Humans are psychological beings who governed by inspiration for achieving both organizational and personal objectives. Both individuals and business organizations has assumed a terribly high importance. Thus, the art and science of motivation has emerged as an important part of business studies (Jeston, 2012). The Expectancy Theory of Motivation, which was proposed by Victor Vroom, is a theory that says the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way. It’s depending on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome.
Interestingly, the stewardship hypothesis trusts that if given power and obligation, the employee can follow up for the benefit of the rule. It is a distinction in points of view, and the outcome is that organizations give high motivations with the goal that directors’ demonstration in light of a legitimate concern for proprietors (agency hypothesis). I still think that agency theory will fit my strategic audit firm. Managers were hired to be the leaders of organizations. They acquire the skills and abilities managers should have to run firms.
Question One: How can expectancy theory be used to explain the differences in motivation between Abbas & Salwa? What specifics from the case apply to expectancy theory? Expectancy theory is defined that the strength of tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. So, the two of them are university students so the result they're expecting will be that they would have quite the same or similar opportunities and same amount of money paid. Salwa has a lot of elements that are given to her in the job characteristics model like task identity and also autonomy since she's able to create a product at the culinary
This objective nature of Motivation is also recommended by Krietner and Kinicki (2001 p.162) put forward that Motivation represents “those psychological procedures that cause the stimulation, persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed”. Mullins (2006) directs that the study of motivation is basically associated, with why people act in a certain way. The underlying question is “why do people do what they do?” in simple words Motivation can be defined as the direction and persistence of action. Motivation is the key ingredient in employee performance and productivity. People would not get job done without adequate motivation to attain those work objectives, even when they have clear objects, skills and helpful work environment.
Expectancy theory (Porter & Lawler, 1968) is often used to explain how individual has a decision making process in choosing what they do. It uses the concept of Motivational Force (MF) which is the interaction between expectancy, instrumentality and valance. In simple words, it explained that motivation to perform certain behaviour is caused by individual’s expectancy of effort and rewards upon performance, by individual’s preference or values. For example, if individual believes that his or her effort will bring high performance (high expectancy), and believe that high performance will lead to a job promotion (high instrumentality), and he or she value the promotion (high valence), then he or she would be highly motivated to work. However, after putting effort into work but receive low evaluation and result in no promotion or equal reward as those with minimal effort, his or her expectancy is possibly
There is no consensus regarding the relative accuracy of Maslow’s categories in the absence of rigorous scientific investigation (Reid-Cunningham, 2008). At all levels, needs are present at a given time (Aswathappa, 2005).6 • Maslow’s theory is difficult to test (Reid-Cunningham, 2008). The theory is difficult for managers to apply in practice, as there are individual and cultural differences even within organizations (Aswathappa, 2005). • Some rewards (e.g., a higher salary) may satisfy more than one need (Mullins, 2005). In spite of these criticisms, Aswathappa (2005) believes that the Theory offers an account of interpersonal variations in human behavior.
S/N MAIN THEORY SUPPORTING THEORY CONTRADICTORY THEORY 1 Affordances Theory: Affordance theory states that the world is perceived not only in terms of object shapes and spatial relationships but also in terms of object possibilities for action (affordances) perception drives action (Gibson,1966). Action-specific perception, or perception-action, is a psychological theory that people perceive their environment and events within it in terms of their ability to act. (Proffitt, 2006) Theory of Planned Behaviour: The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors. (Ajzen,1985) 2 Uses and Gratification Theory: The driving question
The first channel suggests that locus of control is crucial to the decisions on human capital investment and hence indirectly affects labor market outcomes. Locus of control has influence on expected payoffs to human capital investment, perceptions of risk, self-control, motivation and so on . The second channel refers to using personality tests to screen job applicants. Individuals with internal attitudes not only perceive more control but also actually seek out situations in which control is possible. Internal locus of control enhances incentive and makes employees to work harder.
Expectancy theory The original thinking behind what has come to be known as expectancy theory, or Vroom’s Expectancy-Valence-Instrumentality (VIE) theory (Beck, 1983), can be traced back to the theorizing of Tolman and Levin in 1932 and 1938 respectively (Petri, 1996). Vroom was, however, the first scholar to elaborate on this thinking in a motivational context in 1964 (Gouws, 1995). Since its origins in the psychological theorising of some 60 years ago, the expectancy theory has been presented in many variations. Common to all versions is the basic tenet that people base their behaviour on their beliefs and expectations regarding future events, namely those maximally advantageous to them (Baron et al., 2002). Essentially, the theory explains how rewards lead to behaviour, through focusing on internal cognitive states that lead to motivation.
The design and operation of reward management processes and practices should start from an understanding of the implications of the psychological contract concept, motivation theory and the factors affecting pay levels. These needs are most likely to be met if reward processes are based on an articulated and integrated approach to the development of a frame work of reward philosophies, strategies and policies that will support the achievement of the organization’s business strategies, as well as acting as levers for change. Reward exceptional performance which should be appreciated by employees. From the company’s perspective the possibility of risk-sharing is an advantage which makes compensation follow the company’s performance. That the rewards are due to exceptional performance is not an opinion shared with our respondents.
The last theory is ‘Goal Theory of Motivation’ which is a type of process motivation theory. This theory is also known as Edwin Locke 's Goal Theory. As it as a process motivation theory, it does not state ‘what motivate employees’ but it states about ‘how motivation occurs’. It proposes that motivation and performance will be high if individuals are set specific goals which are challenging but accepted and where feedback is given on performance. Specific challenging goals mean the goals are defined in details and they are hard but they are possible to accomplish.
With relation to the work place, Ray Williams who writes for psychology today defines motivation as “predisposition to behave in a purposeful manner to achieve specific, unmet needs and the will to achieve, and the inner force that drives individual to accomplish personal organizational goals” (Williams). A person becomes motivated in order to achieve their own personal goals as well as the organsational goals. The more motivated an employee is, the more likely they are to have organizational commitment and identify themselves with the organization. This will meet some of the unmet needs, and connect them with the organization. If willing, the manger is able to give the employees incentives to meet their own goals and the goals set by the organization.
These rewards satisfy psychological needs whilst extrinsic rewards satisfy basic needs (Hurd et al, 2008, p.270). Motivation theories can be divided into content and process theories. The first explain why people work or what activates them to work and their effort to satisfy their needs through work and the last refers to how and why people choose one action that could satisfy their needs (Boddy, 2008, p.487). In this paper, we will analyze the McClelland theory because it is the most powerful of content theories, the equity theory because it addresses with all dependent variables and finally the goal-setting theory because it is generally accepted that has the biggest impact on productivity (Robbins, 1998,
Type of theory Theorists summary of theory Implications Two factor Herzberg two factors influence job satisfaction: Intrinsic /satisfiers and Extrinsic motivators / dissatisfiers (fig) identifies the basic needs and impacts approaches to job design. Attracted attention to the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Expectancy Vroom, Porter and Lawler The recognised relationships between effort and performance, effort and results, and the importance of the outcomes to the person influence motivation and performance. inform approaches to rewards, i.e. that there must be a relationship between effort and reward (reward should be obtainable and worthy).
The more you are able to provide what they want through company incentives in place, the more you should expect what you really want, namely: productivity, quality, and service. Jones and George (2010) argue that employees' motivation is as the "psychological forces that determine the direction of a person's behavior in an organization, a person's level of effort, and a person's level of persistence." The behavioral direction of a person is described as "the many possible behaviors that a person could engage in." Effort indicates how hard people work. Persistence on the other hand refers to whether, when dealing with roadblocks and obstacles, employees keep trying or give up.