Value expectancy model The expectancy is considered as a general concept in psychology, however, conversely in the health literature it is assumed as it is in the real world. In psychology, expectancy theory posits that satisfaction is expressed by a difference between what one received and expected or wanted to receive. However, expectations are made of “cognitive processes” and shaped by “previous experiences”, so it is dynamic, complex beliefs (Bowling et al., 2012). Linder-Pelz theory, value-expectancy model, is based on social-psychological theory as they proposed five social-psychological variables, “occurrences”, “value”, ”expectations”, ”interpersonal comparisons”, and ”entitlement” as determinants of patient satisfaction to explain
Expectancy theory The original thinking behind what has come to be known as expectancy theory, or Vroom’s Expectancy-Valence-Instrumentality (VIE) theory (Beck, 1983), can be traced back to the theorizing of Tolman and Levin in 1932 and 1938 respectively (Petri, 1996). Vroom was, however, the first scholar to elaborate on this thinking in a motivational context in 1964 (Gouws, 1995). Since its origins in the psychological theorising of some 60 years ago, the expectancy theory has been presented in many variations. Common to all versions is the basic tenet that people base their behaviour on their beliefs and expectations regarding future events, namely those maximally advantageous to them (Baron et al., 2002). Essentially, the theory explains how rewards lead to behaviour, through focusing on internal cognitive states that lead to motivation.
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom 's expectancy theory separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and outcomes. Vroom 's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee 's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person 's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
Neal, Griffin & Hart (2000) first proposed that organizational climate has a significant impact on safety climate and safety performance. Organizational climate referred to leadership, roles, and communication (James & McIntyre, 1996) which can influence the interactions among employees (Griffin & Mathieu, 1997), attitudes towards organizational achievement (Griffin, 1996) and affective responses to work environment (Michela et al., 1995; Hart et al., 1996a). Organizational climate was perceived by the significance of the environment for individual values, and it exerted a strong impact on individual motivation to achieve job performance (Brown & Leigh, 1996). Besides, Morrison et al. (1997) suggested that organizational climate can have effect on knowledge and skills by increasing participation in training.
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory The first content theory is one of the most popular theories of motivation and was developed by Abraham Maslow. His theory focused on the psychological needs of employees and is based on two principles. He proposed that individuals are "wanting beings" and that they are motivated to satisfy certain types of needs. The second premise of Maslow's theory is that individual needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Maslow's theory suggests that when a lower level need is satisfied, this need is no longer a motivator and the individual would then be motivated to satisfy the next need in the hierarchy.
S/N MAIN THEORY SUPPORTING THEORY CONTRADICTORY THEORY 1 Affordances Theory: Affordance theory states that the world is perceived not only in terms of object shapes and spatial relationships but also in terms of object possibilities for action (affordances) perception drives action (Gibson,1966). Action-specific perception, or perception-action, is a psychological theory that people perceive their environment and events within it in terms of their ability to act. (Proffitt, 2006) Theory of Planned Behaviour: The theory states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors. (Ajzen,1985) 2 Uses and Gratification Theory: The driving question
Moreover, these goals direct people's attitude, and once they submit themselves to the goals; more exertion ought to be applied to accomplish these goals. In addition, the managers can use money related impetuses or participation to direct worker's encouragement towards accomplishing the association's goal. Furthermore, the motivating forces and values will influence behaviour only if the goals are made more appealing. However, the fulfilment or disappointment with execution will rely on upon whether the people came to a difficult but fair objective. The execution of this theory for administration is that goal setting may be utilised as a powerful technique for encouraging workers, as long as the goals are obviously characterised and they are fair and there is a sound quality control framework in place.
We make personnel decisions such as promotion, demotion, transfer or dismissal to an employee according to their performance. We identify the weaknesses of an employee and determine training needs to the employee such as who has which weaknesses and which type of training does he need. And vice versa, staffs provide performance appraisal to us, Managers. Their performance appraisal to us includes how the manager is contributing to the team or department and which skill or area the manager needs to improve. Such Performance Appraisals Activities help to develop own needs of every employees to meet with the needs of our
Sone pyae toe (5701501026) The theory can be summarized to as a cognitive process of how an individual process the different motivational elements. Expectancy Theory provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others. The idea with this theory is that people are motivated to do something because they think their actions will lead to their desired outcome. In simple terms, it’s about how a person will react to different situations as they think their decision will lead them to their desired outcomes. Thus, in my humble effort I tried to break it down into flow steps.
The goal theory The goal theory of motivation developed by Edwin A. Locke suggests that individuals are motivated when they are specific GOALS. The goal theory therefore primarily concerned with employee motivation. Participation in goal setting is essential, as is feedback on performance. Locke proposes that difficult but based on agreement. Overall, the important aspects of Locke’s goal theory are: 1.
(2012) investigate the relationship between economic preference and the individuality based on three datasets. Preference is measured by risk preference, time preference, trust, and social preference including reciprocity and altruism, while personality measures include the big five and locus of control. Becker et al. (2012) find an overall linear but weak association between economic preference and personality traits. Utilizing data from the GSOEP, they verify that economic preference and personality traits have significant explanatory power to a variety of life outcomes.
Through the course and guest speakers, it seems there is a consensus in the corporations to consider that humans are the main assets of the company. The content as well as all the concepts covered during the lectures are mainly about two things: the performance is intended as the outcome of a process that was explicitly articulated in the expectancy theory and motivation of Individuals is the cornerstone of driving performance. In this essay, I will discuss the concept of performance and the adjacent concepts along with the expectancy theory. Finally, I will share some thoughts about the motivation theory in a corporate environment. Interestingly the expectancy theory clarifies the dynamics leading to performance and we can foresee two predominant
This objective nature of Motivation is also recommended by Krietner and Kinicki (2001 p.162) put forward that Motivation represents “those psychological procedures that cause the stimulation, persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directed”. Mullins (2006) directs that the study of motivation is basically associated, with why people act in a certain way. The underlying question is “why do people do what they do?” in simple words Motivation can be defined as the direction and persistence of action. Motivation is the key ingredient in employee performance and productivity. People would not get job done without adequate motivation to attain those work objectives, even when they have clear objects, skills and helpful work environment.