Nucleophilic substitution Essays

  • Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction Lab Report

    840 Words  | 4 Pages

    Introduction:- In organic chemistry the substitution reactions is the most important reactions, especially Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions where nucleophile attacks positive charge or partially positive charge As it does so, it replaces a weaker nucleophile which then becomes a leaving group. The remaining positive or partially positive atom becomes an electrophile. The general form of the reaction is: Nuc: + R-LG → R-Nuc + LG: The electron pair (:) from the nucleophile (Nuc :) attacks

  • Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Lab

    1039 Words  | 5 Pages

    Experiment 2 Report Scaffold (Substitution Reactions, Purification, and Identification) Purpose/Introduction 1. A Sn2 reaction was conducted; this involved benzyl bromide, sodium hydroxide, an unknown compound and ethanol through reflux technique, mel-temp recordings, recrystallization, and analysis of TLC plates. 2. There was one unknown compound in the reaction that was later discovered after a series of techniques described above. 3. To purify and identify the product, recrystallization is used

  • Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Lab Report

    1137 Words  | 5 Pages

    bonds (particularly alpha hydrogen’s) to go through a variety of substitution reactions.1 Carbonyl compounds can be explained by just four fundamental reaction types:  Nucleophilic additions  Nucleophilic acyl substitutions  α-Substitutions  Carbonyl condensations2 α-Substitutions: Alpha-substitution reactions take place at the site next to the carbonyl group the α-position and occupy the substitution of an α hydrogen atom by an electrophile, E,

  • 1-Bromobutane Lab Report

    704 Words  | 3 Pages

    followed by 1-chlorbutane. As shown by Figure 3 and Figure 4, the structure of the molecule indicates the leaving groups to be primary. The leaving groups in this case are chlorine and bromine. This is important because the reaction was a bimolecular nucleophilic

  • Hydrochloric Acid And Sodium Thiosulphate Lab Report

    1539 Words  | 7 Pages

    Introduction The goal of the experiment is to examine how the rate of reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium thiosulphate is affected by altering the concentrations. The concentration of Sodium thiosulfate will be altered by adding deionised water and decreasing the amount of Sodium thiosulphate. Once the Sodium thiosulphate has been tested several times. The effect of concentration on the rate of reaction can be examined in this experiment. The chemical equation for this experiment is hydrochloric

  • Chloride Ions Vs Bromine Case Study

    931 Words  | 4 Pages

    Try to explain this. Bromine is a better nucleophile. The chloride ion is more polar since it is above bromine on the periodic table and is more prone to hydrogen bonding due to its smaller size. Chloride ions are worse than bromine ions for nucleophilic attack, because the chloride ions are fully solvated and are not as available to attack. This is why Bromine ion is better nucleophile because is less electronegative and is willing to give up electrons. 3. What is the principal organic by-product

  • Haloarene Research Paper

    1468 Words  | 6 Pages

    tryptophan, tyrosine and many other derivatives of pyrrole are also present in nature. Reactions of haloarenes or reactions of aryl halides can be primarily divided into three types: Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions Electrophilic Substitution Reactions Reaction with Metals The reaction of Haloarenes – Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

  • The Pros And Cons Of Organic And Inorganic Chemistry

    1064 Words  | 5 Pages

    In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution reactions are the most well studied and useful class of reactions. These reactions can occur by a range of mechanisms, the two studied in this lab are the SN1 and SN2 reactions. In a nucleophilic substitution, the nucleophile is a electron rich chemical species which attacks the positive charge of an atom to replace a leaving group. Since nucleophiles donate electrons, they are defined as Lewis bases. The positive or partially positive

  • Luminol Lab Report

    948 Words  | 4 Pages

    Luminol 5. Introduction In this experiment, luminol was prepared from 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine under high heat. 3-nitrophthalic acid and hydrazine produced the precipitate 3-nitrophthalhydrazine, which was isolated using vacuum filtration. 3-nitrophthalhydrazine reacts with sodium dithionite to produce luminol. The solid luminol was isolated by vacuum filtration, then its chemiluminescence was demonstrated through its reaction with iron from a solution of potassium ferricyanide. The product

  • Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Lab Report

    525 Words  | 3 Pages

    When an aromatic compound such as phenol undergoes nitration, it does so through an Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution (EAS). Undergoing this reaction requires two steps. The first step is the addition of the electrophile, which in this lab was the Nitronium ion formed by the dilute nitric acid solution. This is the rate determining step for this reaction, as during this step aromaticity is lost and the arenium ion is formed. The position of the electrophile to be added is determined by how well

  • Tertiary Alkyl Halides Lab Report

    1108 Words  | 5 Pages

    Tertiary alkyl halides tend to give a mixture with both inverted and retained configurations at reaction centers. This is because this reaction proceeds through a stable carbocation intermediate and the carbon at the reaction center goes to sp2 hybridized state (planar geometry). The incoming nucleophile can attack from both sides of the plane and can give two products with retained and inverted configuration. If there is a partial interaction with the leaving group (nucleofuge) with carbocation

  • Nitration Of Methyl Benzene Essay

    907 Words  | 4 Pages

    m-nitrobenzoate using electrophilic aromatic substitution using nitration. The reaction used methyl benzoate with the acid catalyst as sulfuric acid. The mechanism for the nitration using methyl benzoate is presented in Figure 1. Figure 1: Benzene can only undergo substitution reactions that are called electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Given that benzene rings are used commonly in the production of many organic compounds, the capability to make substitutions to benzene is critical. This can

  • Lab Report: Nitration Of Bromomobenzene

    1022 Words  | 5 Pages

    of the lab. The benzene is an aromatic compound and when it reacts with wither a mixture of sulfuric acid or nitric acid creates what is known as a nitro group. The formation of the nitro group is possible because it is an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The creation of the nitronium ion is shown below: The reaction with the nitronium ion with bromobenzene creates three products instead of one. Depending on where the nitronium group or the alpha complexes of the reaction is on the ring

  • Phosphoric Acid And Acetylsalicylic Acid Lab Report

    2007 Words  | 9 Pages

    V. Results and Discussion One of the objectives of this exercise is to synthesize acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) from salicylic acid. The mechanism for this synthesis is through nucleophilic acyl substitution. Acetic anhydride was the acetylation reagent used with the salicylic acid. The mechanisms and the reaction involved in the synthesis are seen in the following figure. 1.00 gram of fine white salicylic acid powder was weighed in a clean, dry 125mL Erlenmeyer flask. 3mL of strong smelling

  • Pyridine Lab Report

    937 Words  | 4 Pages

    Introduction about pyridine ring. py ridine, any of a class of organic compounds of the aromatic heterocyclic series characterized by a six-membered ring structure composed of five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The simplest member of the pyridine family is pyridine itself, a compound with molecular formula C5H5N It is structurally related tobenzene, with one methine group (=CH−) replaced by a nitrogen atom. The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including azines and the vitamins

  • Benzocaine Synthesis Lab Report

    536 Words  | 3 Pages

    was used to form an ester. In the experiment, sulfuric acid acted as a catalyst and necessary for this reaction to occur. There was a change between the –OH group of carboxylic acid to an –OCH2CH3 group in the reaction. It was a result of nucleophilic substitution

  • Chlorine Disinfection Lab Report

    1525 Words  | 7 Pages

    Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Disinfection is applied in water as well as wastewater treatment as a finishing step so as to destroy pathogens but the cause of concern regarding the disinfection process is the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Natural organic matter (NOM) in water has been considered as the predominant DBP precursors. Disinfectants are powerful oxidants that oxidize the organic matter present in water forming

  • Le Chatelier's Theory

    800 Words  | 4 Pages

    INTRODUCTION The concept of chemical equilibrium was developed after Berthollet (1803) found that some chemical reactions are reversible. For any reaction mixture to exist at equilibrium, the rates of the forward and backward (reverse) reactions are equal. In the following chemical equation with arrows pointing both ways to indicate equilibrium, A and B are reactant chemical species, S and T are product species, and α, β, σ, and τ are the stoichiometric coefficients of the respective reactants

  • 4 Oxadiazole Research Paper

    1435 Words  | 6 Pages

    1,3,4-Oxadiazole (1) is a heterocyclic compound containing an oxygen atom and two nitrogen atoms in a five-membered ring. It is derived from furan by substitution of two methylene groups (=CH) with two pyridine type nitrogens (-N=) [1,2]. There are three known isomers: 1,2,4-oxadiazole (2), 1,2,3-oxadiazole (3) and 1,2,5-oxadiazole (4). However, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-oxadiazole are better known, and more widely studied by researchers because of their many important chemical and biological properties

  • Recrystallization Of Acetanilide Essay

    920 Words  | 4 Pages

    the solubility of the impurities at all temperatures. To analyze the acetanilide product of the reaction, 1H NMR and IR were used. Results, Discussions, and Conclusions In this experiment, acetanilide was synthesized via nucleophilic acyl substitution from both acetic anhydride and aniline. During this reaction, aniline acts as the nucleophile and acyl (CH3CO-) group from acetic anhydride acts as the electrophile. The hydrogen atom of –NH2 group is replaced by the acyl group. The crude