Lasting 500 years with the republic and roughly a thousand and five hundred more with the Roman empire, the Roman Army was an extremely effective fighting force. Creating new tactics, some still used to this day, the ancient Romans were able to conquer most of Europe, northern sections of Africa and parts of the Middle East. With a complex chain of command, adaptability, formations and equipment, the Roman armies were the best for their time. In the beginning of the first Roman army, the Romans followed the Greek Phalanx formation, a rectangular formation made up of heavy infantry units. In the 4th century the Romans changed the Phalanx formation and renamed it the Triplex Acies, or triple line (Ricketts, Colin).
290). Therefore, while Latin was used as a language of power, Greek was the language understood universally by people from different origins and therefore the language of books and literature “widely used for the composition of works on archeological, historical, and philosophical subjects (Rochette, 2014, p. 285)”. As such, educated people learned to read and speak Greek just as well as they did Roman, a fact which encouraged literary borrowings and language simulation. The mixing of these two languages in literature eventually created the Greco-Roman literature. As Bruno Rochette (2014, p. 285) explains “Greek and Latin are so closely linked in linguistic consciousness of the Romans that they came to assume a total assimilation of Latin to Greek”.
However, throughout it’s glorious reign, the Romans managed to control a society of some 50 million while building the most advanced civilisation of the ancient world. The Romans controlled their empire by “romanising" their conquered lands and peoples and exerting unique methods to reform, organise
Hammurabi, who was a king of the “old Babylonian empire”(Jona Lendering, 2004), ruled from 1792 BCE to 1750 BCE for forty-two years and accomplished a great riverine civilization such that no other king had done to the extent of its mastery. The city of Babylon which is located in Mesopotamia is known as “modern day” Iraq which lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers helped in creating rich and fertile soil which allowed humans to plant and grow crops in which they needed to survive. Through trade, humans could communicate with one another and grasp on to new ideas. As a result of the rivers, civilization began to flourish outstandingly.
Alexandria was the heart of the Hellenistic culture and was the greatest city in the world at the time. Sporre (1989: 92), stated that the Hellenistic world was wealthy, their lifestyles improved because of their wealth, their image and styles changed, and a person’s joy was seen as a psychological equilibrium and became the new philosophy. The characteristics of Hellenistic art is the redefinition of portraiture, claims Kleiner (2011: 153). Kleiner (2011: 153), argues that sculptors during this time sculpted the actual appearances of their subjects and personalities and that were in motion. Artists at this time portrayed emotion through movement, poses and facial expressions.
The Legacy of the Roman Empire The ancient Roman saying states: All roads lead to Rome! And this was true, in this essay I will show what great achievements and inventions happened during the plus minus 500 years from 27 Before Common Era, to 476 Common Era, in the Roman Empire and argue how these achievements and inventions still have influences in our everyday life and the modern world we live in today. Of course the Roman Empire consisted of more than just Roads, the Roman legislative system, their customs and traditions, religions, social structure, political system, art, architecture, writing, philosophy, citizenship, language use and military advancements held their Empire and their citizens together. I will reflect and show, how some of these tools the Romans used almost 2000 years ago, still live on through us today. Firstly I will elaborate on the history of the Roman Empire a little.
The Patricians were a formidable and prosperous class during the era of Ancient Rome. According to PBS’s article on Patricians , the word “patrician” is derived from the Latin word “patres”, meaning “fathers”, in reference to the founding fathers of Ancient Rome, and hence they were in-charge of the empire’s politics, religion, and military. The patricians were one of the first clans who occupied the seven hills and played a key role in advising the first kings. The Patricians and their families composed 5%-10% of the population during the imperial period, and often had slaves under their command. Patrician men lived very luxurious lives as they often treated themselves with rich, substantial banquets and dwelled in villas.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. In 84 BC, Julius Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of a nobleman. Together they had a daughter, Julia Caesaris, in 76 BC. In 69 BC, Cornelia passed away. Julius Caesar was a politically adept and popular leader of the Roman Republic who significantly transformed what became known as the Roman Empire by greatly expanding its geographic reach and establishing its imperial system.
For example the Temple of Artemis has Gorgons Sculptures that come from the banister or the face of the temples entrance. As time moved on so did the improvements of architectural design. Orientalizing Period in Greece started in 700BCE and ended in 600BCE. This marked the start of Greek architecture due to the huge influx of trade which brought in new ideas from Egypt and NE. “Greeks attributed almost all of the great achievements to Daedalus-master of all arts Daedalic style.” Also trade brought Greeks into direct contact with monumental stone architecture.
In 1775, she decreed a Statue for the Administration of the Provinces of the Russian Empire, and this divided Russia into provinces and districts in accordance with population statistics. Each province was provided with administrative, political and judicial systems, as well as a governor who would act in place of the empress. Her decisions proved undeniably beneficial to the government by adding depth into its structure, and by the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly 500 districts had been established, the number of government officials had almost doubled, and spending on local governance had increased sixfold. A letter by a French diplomat, Baron de Breteuil, reveals that she “will endeavour to reform the administration of justice and to invigorate the laws”, thus reiterating her dissemination of Enlightened ideas and her consideration of reason and critical thinking in order to determine the most pragmatic approaches to bettering the Russian government. Furthermore, due to a deficiency of silver and copper coins from large government spending, she established the first Assignation Bank of Russia in 1769 in order to strengthen the Russian economy.
The U.S. republican polity has absorbed the concept of Athenian democracy and safeguarded the "people's" participation, trust, and restriction of the government. It is intended to pursue "the greatest happiness of all citizens." It used the representation system to reform Rome's citizen conference, making it an "indirect democracy" agency of "consignment-agent." It borrows from the strengths of the monarchy, strengthens the function and role of the executive power, and gives it to a single person to exercise. At the same time, the founding members of the United States have also drawn lessons from the theory and system of decentralization in past generations and transformed them into a composite decentralization and checks and balances system
In ancient history, the Roman Empire was considered very strong. The empire worn many battles at war, its system of governance was highly organized compared to other nations and it had a stronger economy. For this reason, many nations looked up on Rome and worked had to emulate the empire. Napoleon Bonaparte, as the first emperor of France, also wanted to emulate the leadership of Rome. He therefore performed his duties like the Roman emperors, so as to make France strong in battles and also highly organized in its governance ("Napoleon Bonaparte - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com," n.d.).
Ancient Rome was a huge empire that ruled over the Mediterranean. Rome gave many gifts to other civilizations, for instance, the way the Colosseum was built was introduced to other civilizations. The Roman republic was somewhat meeting the common good. Common good meaning everyone was being affected in a good way. If I had to give Rome a grade it would be an A minus.
The end of the eighth century gave birth to a new kingdom that was known as the Carolingian Empire. This empire came to dominate vast European territories much to the credit of its powerful ruler, Charlemagne. “He created an empire that stretched from the North Sea in the north to Italy in the south and from France in Europe to Vienna in central Europe” (Spielvogel 219). His reign led to the fusion of different entities including, the Germanic tribes, Christianity and the Classical traditions of European civilization. Charlemagne himself was of Germanic heredity, but was born and raised a devoted, practicing Christian.
The Roman Empire was essentially a modern empire with a number of main characteristics that allowed it to continue to be succsseful over many centuries. Their emperor was regarded as a deity if he was good and Rome prospered during his rule. The Romans had a strong army that was led well. It had laws for all it 's citizens and was goverened by the Principate. The Roman Empire was highly literate and this allowed it to communicate with people and have a good economy.
The Sumerians believed in kingship and as said in chapter one of the history book, “They derived their power form the gods, and they were agents of the gods.” The gods ruled their city. Therefore, the city centered around political, religious, economical, social, and cultural developments. Sargon’s Empire is an example of new political and military structures. As said in the history books, “His power was based on his military, namely, his standing army of 5,000 men.”
Hasanzade Ismayil instructor: Peter Tuner Ancient and Medieval History 10.18.2015 What was Romanization and How did it happen? The roman empire throughout ancient time had expanded its territorial state to regional superpower. This process entailed a lot of non- Romans to transfer “Romanized” subject -“citizens” in the empire. Romanization influenced every level of social course from historical cultural integration to colonization and urbanization. Romanization is reciprocity between the center of Rome and outer areas such as Greece, British, and Asia minor of Rome that created amazing cultural relationship through the Roman empire.
The civilization of Ancient Rome thrived from the sixth century before Christ to the fifth century AD. The empire was the empire to overcome most of the Mediterranean Sea basin, the primary being the traditional Greeks. when usurping the previous Greek Empire, the Romans assimilated several aspects of Greek culture into their own, together with the Greek architecture. the most attributions to Ancient Greco-Roman architecture area unit cement, the arch, the vault, the dome and centralized road systems. The Roman fine arts Revolution is additionally called the Concrete Revolution.
He wanted to be remembered in a positive manner, so only things that can be seen as accomplishments were placed on the Res Gestae. He never included anything that would make him look bad, for obvious reasons. This means that anything that happened during Augustus' reign that he did want to be included, was not included. We only see his reign from his own perspective. Although all of these things he listed were probably true, they only show one side of him.