Lasting 500 years with the republic and roughly a thousand and five hundred more with the Roman empire, the Roman Army was an extremely effective fighting force. Creating new tactics, some still used to this day, the ancient Romans were able to conquer most of Europe, northern sections of Africa and parts of the Middle East. With a complex chain of command, adaptability, formations and equipment, the Roman armies were the best for their time. In the beginning of the first Roman army, the Romans followed the Greek Phalanx formation, a rectangular formation made up of heavy infantry units. In the 4th century the Romans changed the Phalanx formation and renamed it the Triplex Acies, or triple line (Ricketts, Colin).
Hammurabi, who was a king of the “old Babylonian empire”(Jona Lendering, 2004), ruled from 1792 BCE to 1750 BCE for forty-two years and accomplished a great riverine civilization such that no other king had done to the extent of its mastery. The city of Babylon which is located in Mesopotamia is known as “modern day” Iraq which lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers helped in creating rich and fertile soil which allowed humans to plant and grow crops in which they needed to survive. Through trade, humans could communicate with one another and grasp on to new ideas. As a result of the rivers, civilization began to flourish outstandingly.
Ancient Rome was a huge empire that ruled over the Mediterranean. Rome gave many gifts to other civilizations, for instance, the way the Colosseum was built was introduced to other civilizations. The Roman republic was somewhat meeting the common good. Common good meaning everyone was being affected in a good way. If I had to give Rome a grade it would be an A minus.
It is closely related to developments of writing, counting and money and ancient auditing systems by the primitive Egyptians and Babylonians (Keith, 1992). Five thousand years before Luca Pacioli invented the double entry system, the Assyrian, Chaldean-Babylonian and Sumerian civilizations were flourishing in the Mesopotamian Valley, producing some of the oldest known records of commerce. In the region between the Tigris and Euphrates River, periodic floods made the valley a rich area for agriculture (Alexander, 2002). As the prosperity of the farmers increased, business that provided services and small industries sprung up and developed in the communities in and around the Mesopotamian Valley. The cities of Babylon and Nineveh became the centers for regional trade, and Babylonian language became the language of business and politics throughout the Near East.
The end of the eighth century gave birth to a new kingdom that was known as the Carolingian Empire. This empire came to dominate vast European territories much to the credit of its powerful ruler, Charlemagne. “He created an empire that stretched from the North Sea in the north to Italy in the south and from France in Europe to Vienna in central Europe” (Spielvogel 219). His reign led to the fusion of different entities including, the Germanic tribes, Christianity and the Classical traditions of European civilization. Charlemagne himself was of Germanic heredity, but was born and raised a devoted, practicing Christian.
The civilization of Ancient Rome thrived from the sixth century before Christ to the fifth century AD. The empire was the empire to overcome most of the Mediterranean Sea basin, the primary being the traditional Greeks. when usurping the previous Greek Empire, the Romans assimilated several aspects of Greek culture into their own, together with the Greek architecture. the most attributions to Ancient Greco-Roman architecture area unit cement, the arch, the vault, the dome and centralized road systems. The Roman fine arts Revolution is additionally called the Concrete Revolution.
The Legacy of the Roman Empire The ancient Roman saying states: All roads lead to Rome! And this was true, in this essay I will show what great achievements and inventions happened during the plus minus 500 years from 27 Before Common Era, to 476 Common Era, in the Roman Empire and argue how these achievements and inventions still have influences in our everyday life and the modern world we live in today. Of course the Roman Empire consisted of more than just Roads, the Roman legislative system, their customs and traditions, religions, social structure, political system, art, architecture, writing, philosophy, citizenship, language use and military advancements held their Empire and their citizens together. I will reflect and show, how some of these tools the Romans used almost 2000 years ago, still live on through us today. Firstly I will elaborate on the history of the Roman Empire a little.
Ancient Rome had a well organized government that had many purposes that helped them create an amazing civilization. I studied 5 difference purposes of government to learn more about Ancient Rome. Those were the following: public services, protect rights, rule of law, prepare for a common defense, and support the economic system. The Roman Republic had amazing features. The Roman government met the needs of the public services by providing many advanced, and secure items for the Roman citizens.
For example the Temple of Artemis has Gorgons Sculptures that come from the banister or the face of the temples entrance. As time moved on so did the improvements of architectural design. Orientalizing Period in Greece started in 700BCE and ended in 600BCE. This marked the start of Greek architecture due to the huge influx of trade which brought in new ideas from Egypt and NE. “Greeks attributed almost all of the great achievements to Daedalus-master of all arts Daedalic style.” Also trade brought Greeks into direct contact with monumental stone architecture.
In 1775, she decreed a Statue for the Administration of the Provinces of the Russian Empire, and this divided Russia into provinces and districts in accordance with population statistics. Each province was provided with administrative, political and judicial systems, as well as a governor who would act in place of the empress. Her decisions proved undeniably beneficial to the government by adding depth into its structure, and by the end of her reign, 50 provinces and nearly 500 districts had been established, the number of government officials had almost doubled, and spending on local governance had increased sixfold. A letter by a French diplomat, Baron de Breteuil, reveals that she “will endeavour to reform the administration of justice and to invigorate the laws”, thus reiterating her dissemination of Enlightened ideas and her consideration of reason and critical thinking in order to determine the most pragmatic approaches to bettering the Russian government. Furthermore, due to a deficiency of silver and copper coins from large government spending, she established the first Assignation Bank of Russia in 1769 in order to strengthen the Russian economy.
It was a normal part of Roman society. It was not unusual for even a home of moderate means to have slaves. The republican ruled for hundreds of years from around 509 BC to 45 BC. Rome was a first grew as a republic which means the Romans leader such as senators were elected officials that served a certain amount of
The U.S. republican polity has absorbed the concept of Athenian democracy and safeguarded the "people's" participation, trust, and restriction of the government. It is intended to pursue "the greatest happiness of all citizens." It used the representation system to reform Rome's citizen conference, making it an "indirect democracy" agency of "consignment-agent." It borrows from the strengths of the monarchy, strengthens the function and role of the executive power, and gives it to a single person to exercise. At the same time, the founding members of the United States have also drawn lessons from the theory and system of decentralization in past generations and transformed them into a composite decentralization and checks and balances system
The Roman Empire was essentially a modern empire with a number of main characteristics that allowed it to continue to be succsseful over many centuries. Their emperor was regarded as a deity if he was good and Rome prospered during his rule. The Romans had a strong army that was led well. It had laws for all it 's citizens and was goverened by the Principate. The Roman Empire was highly literate and this allowed it to communicate with people and have a good economy.
The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far to the east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, while the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects. Alexander the Great spread Greek culture throughout the Persian Empire, including parts of Asia and Africa. Alexander the Great respected the local cultures he conquered and allowed their customs to continue. Alexander the Great himself embraced local customs, wearing Persian clothes and marrying Persian women.
290). Therefore, while Latin was used as a language of power, Greek was the language understood universally by people from different origins and therefore the language of books and literature “widely used for the composition of works on archeological, historical, and philosophical subjects (Rochette, 2014, p. 285)”. As such, educated people learned to read and speak Greek just as well as they did Roman, a fact which encouraged literary borrowings and language simulation. The mixing of these two languages in literature eventually created the Greco-Roman literature. As Bruno Rochette (2014, p. 285) explains “Greek and Latin are so closely linked in linguistic consciousness of the Romans that they came to assume a total assimilation of Latin to Greek”.
Hasanzade Ismayil instructor: Peter Tuner Ancient and Medieval History 10.18.2015 What was Romanization and How did it happen? The roman empire throughout ancient time had expanded its territorial state to regional superpower. This process entailed a lot of non- Romans to transfer “Romanized” subject -“citizens” in the empire. Romanization influenced every level of social course from historical cultural integration to colonization and urbanization. Romanization is reciprocity between the center of Rome and outer areas such as Greece, British, and Asia minor of Rome that created amazing cultural relationship through the Roman empire.
Julius Caesar was born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC. In 84 BC, Julius Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of a nobleman. Together they had a daughter, Julia Caesaris, in 76 BC. In 69 BC, Cornelia passed away. Julius Caesar was a politically adept and popular leader of the Roman Republic who significantly transformed what became known as the Roman Empire by greatly expanding its geographic reach and establishing its imperial system.
He wanted to be remembered in a positive manner, so only things that can be seen as accomplishments were placed on the Res Gestae. He never included anything that would make him look bad, for obvious reasons. This means that anything that happened during Augustus' reign that he did want to be included, was not included. We only see his reign from his own perspective. Although all of these things he listed were probably true, they only show one side of him.
Colosseum Architecture Arthur Erickson once said, “Roman civilization had achieved, within the bounds of its technology, relatively as great a mastery of time and space as we have achieved today.” That notion is certainly apparent once one takes a glimpse at the Colosseum in Rome, Italy. The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheater, is placed in the heart of the city. Only fitting, because with its divinity in architecture one can truly see how much this monument represented Roman culture during its time. The development of the Colosseum initially began around 70 A.D under the ruling of Emperor Vespasian. When Emperor Vespasian passed away in 79 A.D, Titus, his son, completed the Colosseum in 80 A.D (“Ancient Roman Colosseum in Rome”).