The anarchist’s challenge states that there is no explicit need for governmental organization and the social contract is limiting individuals from reaching pure freedom. Anarchy literally translates to “without government.” Theorists like William Godwin and Max Striner argued that the individual is sovereign. Their emphasis is on complete autonomy of the individual, rather than the State of Society; this distinguished them from later anarchist thinkers, such as Michael Bakunin and George Woodcock (Carter, 1971). These Anarchist theorists truly believe that anarchy is the best option for people, and it is only without government that people can be free. Anarchists fundamentally object to the notion of a social contract and promote the freedom of the individual. Hobbes’ social contract theory provides a compelling answer to the anarchist’s challenge through his explanation of the state of nature and his solution being an absolute sovereign; furthermore, this argument is supported with historical examples.
This paper aims to explain to explain how theories of various if not limited to one of social contractor’s philosophies can be applied in South Africa. The introduction of the paper explains what a social contract is and how it came to play a role between the state and its citizens. The next part of the paper introduces Jean-Jacques Rousseau concept of the social contract what it entails, it further discusses its relation to the state and its citizens and how it has influenced South Africa. The third part of the paper deals with the application of the identified philosophy and analysing what the philosopher is saying and showing how this has played out in the context of South Africa. The last part of the paper elaborates that while
Societies can be extremely complex. A single society has the possibility to support many different layers of relationships not only between the people populating the society but between the government and the land. Each of these layers is home to different norms and opportunities depending on how they were created and the techniques used to run them. Defining what a society considers human rights and appropriate social interaction may differ from another society’s explanation especially when it involves the mixture of different cultures. Each society has the opportunity to institute social norms, values or beliefs but each individual has the chance to create unique social contracts with every person they come in contact with or have the chance
Why some people cannot escape from criminal activities while others never have any problems has been examined for decades. The study of criminology targets why individuals commit crimes and why criminals behave in certain situations. This criminology research helps to break down a true story on the film “Blow” which tells the story of George Jung, one of the most significant drug traffickers in the United States in the 1970’s. The film depicts several criminal theories on why George lived his life the way he did. This paper will explain the theories best noted in the film Blow about General Strain theory, Differential Association theory and Social Bond theory. These three theories help possibly explain why George became a criminal.
As William James has said “consciousness is a stream. Words such as ‘chain’ or ‘train’ do not describe it.” Taking the analogy further but with crime would showcase an unidimensional description of how deviance occurs would be the same as describing it as a train, as it is bounded by a track and never deviating from that point can be seen as analogous to Thornberry’s (1987/2011) view of earlier social control theories. A stream would then describe the trajectories that Thornberry (1987/2011), Sampson and Laub mention (1993/2011), where certain streams may have a fork that leads to two different paths, with new paths being created through erosion, this gradual buildup is similar to that of mutable nature of social control and social learning.
Social constructivism theory is based on a core principle which is that knowledge is constructed and negotiated socially (Bruner, 1990; Fosnot, 1996; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Vygotsky, 1978; Wenger, 2000). This theory supports collaboration and meaning construction distribution roles in learning that occurs through social interaction. The concept of Collaboration is purely rooted in Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory that claims that learning occurs and cannot be disconnected or detached from the social context (Vygotsky, 1978).
Social constructionism is a major theory used in the academic study of religion. Social constructionism is the theory that reality, truth and meaning is just society just running its course. Bringing this into perspective there have been many different viewpoints as to whether or not this is a valid idea or whether this becomes a paradox of some kind. The idea that our religions has been constructed by the humans living in due to the social process of human beings living through life.
Concepts within ethics can be applied in our everyday life. As ‘primitive beings’ we rely on social interactions to guide (knowledge - Right or Wrong) us in our exponential growth with regard to morals and/or values. In the following three scenarios; Melanie Shorr, the protagonist finds herself under situations that fall under the branch of Normative Ethics. In all three encounters, Shorr is devalued as both a customer and member of society. From Holt Renfrew to the Varsity Movie Theater, the main ethical concept that can be applied to all encounters is the Social Contract Ethics. The Social Contract Ethics applies best to all encounters because it strictly revolves around a mutual agreement of respect as a person would like to be respected.
Gerbner (1998:198) defined cultivation as “the independent contributions media viewing makes to an individual’s conceptions of social reality.” This theory explains how an individual’s perception of social reality can be changed if they perceive the real world according to what they viewed in the media, or especially on television (Holstrom, 2004:197). Morgan and Shanahan (2010: 337) described the media as indoctrinating a woman’s opinion of her body image over time through repetitive and frequent viewing. Levine and Smolak (1996:250) stated that the continual repetition of certain values, as well as the exclusion of certain types of people, actions and stories powerfully influences and adapt viewer’s conceptions of social reality. Tiggemann
The role of self-identity for an individual is the acknowledgement of their characteristics that make them who they are (Oxford University Press, 2015). This essay will look at whether developmental or social influences have a greater effect on self-identity, including some key theories. In terms of development, Bowlby introduced the Attachment theory in 1969 with the help of Ainsworth in 1973 looking at attachment styles in children, which later on went to explain the effect of attachment on self-identity. In terms of social influences, the Social Identity Theory developed by Tajifel and Turner in 1979 explains self-identity in terms of groups we are involved in and how that can affect self-identity.
Further, the author believes that there is a relationship between intergroup differentiation and self-esteem by citing in-group bias as explained by Social Identity Theory. However, various researches as mentioned by him has not basically proved the belief that with positive intergroup differentiation, we are bound to see an improved self-esteem, that is, those individuals who feel that their in-group are better than the out-group will have an improved ego. Similarly, that people with low self-esteem will strive to improve their intergroup differentiation. By citing Hogg & Abrahams (1990), the author argues that self-esteem as a motivational factor has been de-emphasized and may be as a result of discrimination.
Social process theory has several subdivisions including: social control theory, social learning theory and social reaction (labeling) theory (will only focus on social control theory). Social control theory insinuates every person has the possibility of becoming a criminal, but most people are influenced by their bonds to society. It contends that individuals obey the law and are less likely to commit crime if they have: learned self-control, attachment (to family, friends, peers, education, etc.), commitment (to school, learning, etc.), involvement (in leisure activities, sports, etc.), and belief (those that are positive). According to social control theory, an individual is more likely to be criminal/deviant if they are detached and alienated
In the United States, there is a huge problem with people entering the nation, illegally. Some people want the ability to immigrate illegal for some countries. Presidential Candidate Donald Trump wants to build a wall along the border of Mexico and the United States to prevent illegal immigration. The best way for people to come to the country, is legally. If they enter legally, they will have the same abilities as any other native-born citizen. “Right now, the country ‘ought to act to end the humanitarian crisis of tens of thousands of what are, in effect, orphans and strangers in our land” (Hewitt). The person in that quote was explaining that illegal immigration needs so stop to prevent citizen’s jobs being “taken”. According to the Center
Within interpersonal communications there are theories that explain the process in which we form relationships. This essay will explore social exchange theory, which describes the process of interpersonal exchange and the cost benefit analyze that each relationship undergoes. This theory was developed in the early 60s by the sociologists George Homans, Peter Bleu and social psychologists John Thibaut and Harold Kelley. They developed an exchange structure, which according to the International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family is centered on “behaviorism and elementary economics where human behaviour is a envisaged as a function of its payoff” (2003). Throughout this essay I will examine the aspects of social exchange theory, the pros and cons within the theory and finally how this theory can be connected to real life interpersonal interactions.
Groupon, Inc. has been operating since 2008, offering daily deals and discounts for local businesses. Groupon had rapid growth by the end of 2009, spreading to 28 cities across the United States of America (The History of Groupon). Groupon 's then Chief Executive Officer, Andrew Mason stated in the Security Exchange Commision (SEC) S-1 filling from June 2, 2011 the following:
Many agree that most things in life are socially constructed, from important ideas of race, gender, and class to things of lesser importance like quarks, brotherhood and the child viewer of television (Hacking, 1999, pg. 1). Many also agree that social construction is part of everyday life and as Strasser (1999, pg.1) points out, simply by looking at something with a certain conceptual framework in mind, one is constructing it. Although Strasser and many other social constructionists like Lindgren believe that social constructionism is a positive and progressive theory of knowledge (Baxter, 2016), there are others who view it differently. Hacking, for example, believes that constructionism is both an obscure concept as well as an overused
Though policy making in our society is greatly influenced by a number of actors across a variety of system levels, it is also entrenched with social constructions of various groups in our country. Social constructions, in short, are our perceptions of a target group created out of our social, political, and cultural interactions and experiences of the group in question. Instead of solely focusing on “how” policy forms and the changes, Social Construction Theory (SCT) seeks to explain how social constructions of certain population groups influence the relationship of the very public policies that affect them. Policymakers use these constructions to make superficial judgements about a group leading them to continually establish policies upholding
Rothman, Carson, and Madoc-Jones (2011), suggest many controversies occur between social work theories and the practitioner's interpretation of those theories are a subject of great concern in the field of social work. The importance of this research is not just academic, but important to society as a whole. Findings such as those of by Rothman, Carson, and Madoc-Jones, (2011), regarding the interpretation of social problems, demonstrate how quickly and inaccurately social workers can employ erroneous judgment based on the automatic activation of their views or beliefs. As society is forever increasing in its intermixing of individuals from different social and ethnic groups, social workers must further increase their understanding of inter-group