Sodium hydroxide Essays

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    USES OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE, BLEACHING POWDER, BAKING POWDER, WASHING SODA Objective: To understand the use of common salt (NaCl) for preparation of chemicals such as Sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking powder, Washing soda. The common salt (Chemical formula-NaCl, Chemical name- Sodium chloride) that we eat in our daily diet is the raw material for preparation of chemical compounds such as Sodium hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking powder, Washing soda. NaCl is a neutral salt. Sodium hydroxide

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    Titration Lab Report

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    concentration of acid, we can use a known concentration of hydroxide base. This type of reaction is a neutralization reaction, where salt and water are products of the reaction: Acid + Base Salt +

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    Antacids Lab Report

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    acid was poured into the flask until there was a permanent pink colour. The acid was allowed to be poured for a little longer before the flask was removed and taken to a lab bench with a buret that contained 0.1 M sodium hydroxide, and the amount of acid used was recorded. The sodium hydroxide was added into the flask in small amounts

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    Lab Report Stoichiometry

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    triprotic acid, with different volumes of sodium hydroxide. Introduction Procedure Phosphoric acid solution with a volume of 1.00 mL and a molarity of 6.00 M was transferred into a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask using a volumetric pipette. Sodium hydroxide solution with a volume of 6.00 mL and a molarity of 3.00 M was transferred into a 50 mL beaker using a volumetric pipette. While swirling the phosphoric acid solution in the Erlenmeyer flask, the sodium hydroxide solution was added to it a few drops at

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    calcium chloride with 2 mL sodium phosphate, adding a few drops of water to a test tube containing 0.5 g copper sulfate, heating 0.5 g of copper(II) hydroxide in a test tube, adding a square piece of zinc to a test tube containing 3 mL 3M hydrochloric acid, mixing 2 mL 3M hydrochloric acid with 2 mL sodium carbonate, adding 0.1 g MnO2 to a test tube with 3 mL hydrogen peroxide, combusting a sodium acetate and ethanol solution, mixing 3 g ammonium chloride and 7 g strontium hydroxide octahydrate together

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    which has to deal with the laws according to which substances unite to form chemical compounds." In this exercise, we combined copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate with two moles of sodium hydroxide which produced copper(II) hydroxide and sodium sulfate (CuSO4 + 5H2O +2NaOH  Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4). We then dissociated copper(II) hydroxide to produce copper(II) oxide and water (Cu(OH)2  CuO + H2O). The objective of this exercise is to perform a simple chemical reaction where the concept of stoichiometry is put

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    Beginning with the principles, Brønsted-Lowry acid base theory demonstrates that an acid donates a hydrogen ions, while a base accepts hydrogen ions. Strong acids have the an easier ability to donate hydrogen ions compared to weak acids.The goal for Experiment 8 Acid-Base Equilibria: Determination of Acid Ionization Constants is to recognize how different amounts of quantitative values can alter the pH in a solution. This procedure was carried out by mixinging specific acid or base solutions together

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    benzoic) to ions. Hydroxide ions on the other hand convert Phenols to ions. This makes them soluble in the aqueous layer as ions are soluble in water. However, addition of HCl to the aqueous ionic solutions regenerates non-ionic substances which are only soluble in the organic layer. Materials • 2M diethyl ether • Saturated NaCl solution • Saturated aqueous solution of Sodium bicarbonate

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    experiment, citric acid was titrated with sodium hydroxide producing an endpoint between pH range of 8.3-10. (EASYCHEM, 2018) Citric acid has three acidic protons therefore it is a triprotic acid (lumen, 2018). The accurate concentration of the sodium hydroxide must be known to determine the citric acid concentration. The aim of this experiment was to determine the citric acid(weak acid) content of Lemon Juice by titrating it with standard sodium hydroxide solution(strong base). Commercially available

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    Unknown Solid Acid

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    Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to titrate an unknown solid acid (KH2PO4) with a standardized sodium hydroxide solution. After recording and plotting the data, the acid’s equivalence point will be recorded once the color changes. Using the equivalence point, the halfway point will be calculated, which is used to determine the acid’s equilibrium constant. The acid’s calculated equilibrium constant will be compared with the acid’s established pKa value. Eventually using the NaOH and the acid’s

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    Then 35 ml of 1.00 M of Sodium hydroxide was measured and set aside. Using the calorimeter, the hydrochloric acid was stirred heartily and its temperature was recorded as the initial temperature. The temperature of the Sodium hydroxide was assumed to be similar because they were both in the same conditions (lab) for the exact amount of time. Next the Sodium Hydroxide solution was added to the hydrochloric acid solution in the cups and stirred until

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    Acid Titration Lab Report

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    becomes high enough to cause discomfort, brought about by the ingestion of certain types of food, an antacid preparation can be taken to neutralize the excess stomach acid. The active ingredient in every antacid is a base, the most common being metal hydroxides, metal carbonates or a mixture of the two. Table 1 lists the active ingredients in several commercial brands of antacid. Table 1. Brands of antacid tablets and their major ingredients Brand Name Major ingredient Recommended dose Alka-Seltzer NaHCO3

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    Acetonitrile Lab Report

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    2.2 Chemicals and reagents The API of AN (99.9% pure) 1000mg was purchased from market. HPLC grade acetonitrile (SD fine limited). Analytical grade hydrochloric acid ,sodium hydroxide flakes, hydrogen peroxide. Milli-Q Water purchased from market.. 2.3 Details of Method Chromatographic conditions: Reversed Phase High Performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection separation was achieved on zorbox Agilent Eclipsc XDB column c18(150 nm× 4.6 mm×5µm) as stationary phase with binary gradient

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    of a given material known as concentration is in a substance or mixture. In this lab, the student also learns the technique of using titration. The concentration of the acid we used in class will be sampled with a standardize solution such as sodium hydroxide with an environmentally indicator to show the physical change of color that occurs to the solution by the acid. The equipment necessary for the titration experiment follows: 0.1M NaOH, Acid solution, Anthocyanin (which is found in red cabbage

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    Esters Hydrolysis Rates

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    values of their aqueous solutions as a function of time. The esters being compared are ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl formate, and ethyl butanoate while the pH level can be determined by the change in color of the solution with the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for the base and the universal pH indicator. The two factors that affect the rates for the hydrolysis of esters is the steric factor and the electronic factor which will serve as the determining factor of how

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    probe. The cup was swirled until the temperature reached a peak and began decreasing. After the 180s had passed, data collection ended. The solution was discarded into the waste bin, and the materials were washed. The second reaction in Part B, sodium hydroxide and ammonium chloride, began by saving the data from the first reaction and setting up the LabQuest to new data collection under the same conditions as the first reaction. The cups were restacked and placed in the beaker. Using a graduated cylinder

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    Verna Wang Hannah Palmer CHEM 101-069 Lab 11-19-16 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reagents Lab Report Purpose: We are using the reaction of sodium hydroxide and calcium chloride to illustrate stoichiometry by demonstrating proportions needed to cause a reaction to take place. Background: Just like a recipe would call for a specific amount of one ingredient to a specific amount of another, stoichiometry is the same exact method for calculating moles in a chemical reaction. Sometimes, we may not have

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    In the late nineteenth century, acids were defined by Svante Arrhenius as substances that ionize in water to produce H+ (hydronium) ions, and bases as substances that ionize in water to produce OH- (hydroxide) ions (Chang, 2010). Arrhenius’s definition is known to be limiting thus, a broader definition was made by Johannes Bronsted. It is said that a Bronsted-Lowry acids are those that donate proton while a Bronsted –Lowry bases are those that accept proton (Bruice, 2005). When acids and bases react

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    m); sp3 C-H stretch, 2991-2868 cm-1 (sh, m); sp2 =C-H stretch, 3100-3000 cm-1 (sh, w); sp2 C=O stretch, 1701 cm-1 (sh, s); and sp2-sp2, aromatic, C=C stretch (in ring), 1507 cm-1 (s, m). Formation of Diastereomeric Salts: 30 mL of 0.25 M sodium hydroxide was added to the flask that contained the crude ibuprofen. This flask was heated to 85°C with the addition of 0.9 mL of S-(-)-α-phenethylamine (d=0.94 g/mL, 6.981 mmol). The crude salt was collected via vacuum filtration for 30 minutes and the

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    after reflux Dense gas can be seen Washing the ester with distilled water The ester layer is immiscible with distilled water. Washing the ester with sodium carbonate solution Effervescence -bubbles of gas produced -a ‘pop’ sound could be heard when the separating funnel is closed and opened again. The ester layer is immiscible with the sodium carbonate solution Adding anhydrous calcium chloride into the ester solution Heat would be produced as the surface of the conical flask feels warm.

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