Surface runoff Essays

  • Essay On Urban Runoff

    1230 Words  | 5 Pages

    surface runoff happen when the rainfall intensity exceeds the soil’s infiltration capacity while saturation excess surface runoff is due to waterlogged on the soil where the soil no longer possess storage for any additional rainfall (Dunne & Black, 1970; Dunne, 1983). For the landscape which is prone to VSA hydrology, climatic variables used to determined the nature and extend of surface runoff (Cooper, 2010). c. Urban Runoff Urban runoff refers to any storm water and non-storm water runoff where

  • Factors Affecting Infiltration Rate

    820 Words  | 4 Pages

    the characteristics of the soil, plants and animals, and angle of the slope control the percentage of precipitation that changes into runoff in a specific landscape, and the duration it takes for runoff to access a stream. Changes that human have made to these landscape features greatly affects runoff. Grassed filter strips used in farm fields help in minimizing runoff and erosion by decelerating water velocities in the vegetated areas. Another way it reduces erosion is by confining excess sediment

  • Essay On Waterfall Rainfall Modeling

    820 Words  | 4 Pages

    RAINFALL RUNOFF MODELING INTRODUCTION A Mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and the process of making mathematical model is called mathematical modeling. It is usually composed of relationship between mathematical operators and system variables. Rainfall runoff modeling: A Rainfall- Runoff model is a mathematical model describes the relation between rainfall and the runoff of the catchment or watershed. It gives the output runoff hydrograph for a given input

  • The Effects Of Water Pollution

    831 Words  | 4 Pages

    chemical or thermal conditions of water body which harmfully disrupts the balance of ecosystem. Water pollution results when overwhelming amount of waste coming from different sources of pollutants such as effluent, litter, refuse sewage or contaminated runoff could no longer be accommodated by the natural ecosystem (WRC, 2000). The main sources of water pollution are agricultural activities, commercial and industrial discharges, domestic and municipal wastewater (Rashid, 2012). First of all, the agricultural

  • Importance Of Erosion In South African Erosion

    770 Words  | 4 Pages

    the soil that has moved from its original because of water movement speed or volume. Sometimes it can cause by the different temperatures between day and night. Sediments make the water appear brownish-grey; they are an indicator of increased water runoff, land degradation, erosion due to intensive industrialized land use, land sealing, and poor soil management. Erosion occurs when the top layer of soil is swept away by natural or man-made forces, making it extremely difficult to grow any vegetation

  • Rainfall Runoff Essay

    1657 Words  | 7 Pages

    Rainfall and runoff are the important components which contribute significantly to the hydrological cycle, in designing different hydrological structures and morphology of the drainage system. The relationship between rainfall and runoff is a complex hydrological phenomenon as it involves various temporal and spatial variations in the physical processes of watersheds as well as rainfall pattern over the region. Therefore, rainfall-runoff relationship study is useful from management of water resources

  • Sources Of Water Pollution

    795 Words  | 4 Pages

    source pollution is the cumulative effect of small contaminants gathered in large area. Leaching of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land, storm water runoff over an agricultural land or a forest, contaminated water after rains that has travelled through several regions are examples of nonpoint source pollution. During precipitation events, runoff from cultivated fields may contain

  • Essay On Road Drainage

    3239 Words  | 13 Pages

    Drainage is the process of interception and removal of water from over, and under the vicinity of the road surface. Drainage can be surface (where water is conveyed on the road surface and drainage channels), or subsurface (water flows underneath the pavement structure). Surface and subsurface drainage of roads critically affects their structural integrity, life and safety to users, and is thus important during highway design and construction. Road designs therefore have to provide efficient means

  • Hydrologic Cycle Literature Review

    1431 Words  | 6 Pages

    cycle (Adopted from Life Water Canada site) The main hydrological cycle processes can be listed as the following: Precipitation: Precipitation in the form of rain, snow and hail comes from clouds. Evaporation: As water is heated by the sun, its surface molecules become sufficiently energized to break free of the attractive force binding them together, and then evaporate and rise as invisible vapor in the atmosphere. Transpiration: The process

  • Essay On Stormwater Management

    2913 Words  | 12 Pages

    STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Defining the Problem Stormwater runoff can be defined as “…the water that flows over the land from rainfall during or after a storm event or as a result of snowmelt” (Pyzorha 1994). Generally, part of this runoff will be absorbed through infiltration, while the rest will make its way to streams and lakes. As watersheds experience an increase in urbanization, however, impervious coverage increases, thereby reducing infiltration. Reduced infiltration increases the possibility

  • Stormwater Management Case Study

    2913 Words  | 12 Pages

    STORMWATER MANAGEMENT Defining the Problem Stormwater runoff can be defined as “…the water that flows over the land from rainfall during or after a storm event or as a result of snowmelt” (Pyzorha 1994). Generally, part of this runoff will be absorbed through infiltration, while the rest will make its way to streams and lakes. As watersheds experience an increase in urbanization, however, impervious coverage increases, thereby reducing infiltration. Reduced infiltration increases the possibility

  • Essay On Infiltration Rate

    1215 Words  | 5 Pages

    hour) of the rate at which the water from precipitation or irrigation is able to absorb in the soil. In the other word, infiltration rate is the velocity of water entering the soil. One of the most important factors that affect the process of rainfall-runoff is infiltration rate (Miyata, 2010) which related to the occurrence of Hortonian overland flow (Horton, 1933) where the volume is governed by the difference between infiltration rate and rainfall intensity. Infiltration calculated by using simplified

  • Negative Effects Of Erosion

    1183 Words  | 5 Pages

    INTRODUCTION What objects can prevent soil erosion the best? Erosion is the process in which the Earth’s surface gets worn down by the forces of nature, which can be a good or a bad thing. A beneficial result of erosion is the movement of nutrient rich soil to new areas. New plants and trees can grow in those areas, aiding people as well as animals. Erosion can form riverbanks, caves, wetlands, and other habitats for animals to live in. An adverse effect is the devastation to civilized areas. Homes

  • Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter Analysis

    912 Words  | 4 Pages

    1. Introduction Streamflow is the amount of water flowing at a particular location and a specified time. It is basically the runoff generated from the watershed or catchment whose magnitude are measured at stream gauging sites which are generally outlets. It is measured in the discharge units (L3T-1). Hydrometry is the branch of science which deals with the measurement of flow. The accurate measurement of streamflow is necessary for number of activities such as in-channel structures like bridges

  • How Does Urban Development Affect The Environment

    1049 Words  | 5 Pages

    are depressed and raised to check ponding or dishing to trap runoff in the environment. The construction of surface and conduit drainages is constructed to drain runoff efficiently and sustainably in well planned urban areas always remove natural vegetation which causes reduction, interception and transpiration of plants in the environment (CSIR, 2000). These limited vegetation cover in the environment

  • The Ground Water Pollution

    1639 Words  | 7 Pages

    preserved state beneath the surface of earth is known as the ground water. This ground water is present beneath the earth’s surface in the pore spaces between the soil particles, and also, in the cracks or fractures in the rocks. At a certain depth beneath the earth’s surface, the soil pore spaces and the rock fractures become saturated, that is., they cannot hold any more water. This depth is called as the water table. Ground water is recharged through various natural surface water sources such as lakes

  • Essay On Sand Filter

    936 Words  | 4 Pages

    A sand filter (water flowing through fine sand) is sometimes used for filtering rainwater entering a tank. This type of filter is only suitable, however, where the inflow is slow, and will soon overflow if the inflow exceeds the rate at which the water can percolate through the sand. Settling tanks and partitions can be used to remove silt and other suspended solids from the water. These are effective where used but add significant additional cost if elaborate techniques are used. 2.2.6 Storage

  • Advantages And Disadvantages Of Honeybee Farming In Malaysia

    1153 Words  | 5 Pages

    As RH Bees farm SDN BHD Sibu Sarawak just a new and fresh business in the sector of bee culture, there is a lot of competitors currently in Malaysia. Currently, the major competitors in the sector of honeybee farming are the local honeybee seller in Malaysia and the Rural Development Corporation (KPD) in Sabah. Major competitors can be defined as the competitors will use a lot of strategies to compete and gain benefits from the competition in the sector of honeybee farming production. Local

  • Water Footprint In Pakistan

    1456 Words  | 6 Pages

    the assessment of agricultural water utilization, as it permit the comparison of crops from the perspective of water consumption type. It can also reflect the water productivity of crop production. The blue water footprint of the crop means that surface or ground water required for the crop production and grey water footprint means the volume of water that is required to assimilate the the load of pollutants based on existing ambient water quality

  • Advantages Of Factory Farming

    1836 Words  | 8 Pages

    Source: Factory Farming: Economic Advantage or Ecological Disaster This source concentrates mainly on industrialized swine farming. The most obvious problem brought up is the amount of waste produced by these swine farms. Waste is either stored in closed vats, spread over fields for fertilization or stored in open-air lagoons. The most eco-friendly method is that of using closed vats, in which the waste is treaded. Unfortunately it is expensive and therefore the latter two methods are used a lot