Thomas Hobbes Essays

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    Hobbes was an English philosopher, known through out the world as the author of “Leviathan” which is regarded as one of the earliest examples of the social contract theory. His writings were greatly influenced by the

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    In Leviathan, Hobbes constructs his political framework around a set of assumptions and beliefs regarding human nature when it is unrestrained by a sovereign and not within a societal framework, or “commonwealth”. Broadly, this theoretical state of being is called the “natural condition of mankind” or, a state of nature. Hobbes reaches the state of nature theory by methodically evaluating the core motivations and realities of human nature (as he sees them), as well as via evaluating newly discovered “savage people in many places of America.” As such, the state of nature, that is human nature, is the scaffolding from which the totality of his political theory is built upon, and with which he justifies the need for a Leviathan. Therefore, for

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    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are two theorists known for their views regarding the social contract. Both theorists study the origins of government and the level of authority given to the state over individuals, thoroughly constructing their arguments through the social contract. A philosophical approach was used in both Hobbes’s and Locke’s arguments, however supporting different authorities. Thomas Hobbes advocates for absolutism whilst John Locke advocates for a constitutional government. Through the close examination of the state of nature, the relationships between subject and sovereign and views regarding the social contract, one can observe a more sensible basis for constructing a successful political society.

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    Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes, two titans of the Enlightenment, work within similar intellectual frameworks in their seminal writings. Hobbes, in Leviathan, postulates a “state of nature” before society developed, using it as a tool to analyze the emergence of governing institutions. Rousseau borrows this conceit in Discourse on Inequality, tracing the development of man from a primitive state to modern society. Hobbes contends that man is equal in conflict during the state of nature and then remains equal under government due to the ruler’s monopoly on authority. Rousseau, meanwhile, believes that man is equal in harmony in the state of nature and then unequal in developed society.

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    COMPARISON BETWEEN TO THOMAS HOPPES AND JOHN LOCKE VIEWS ON STATE OF NATURE Introduction Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) and John Locke (1632-1704) were both political philosophers. They are mainly known for their master pieces on political philosophy. I.e. Hobbes' Leviathan and Locke's Two Treatise of Government. Each of them has different views and perspective of the State of Nature and Social Contract.

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    • During the Enlightenment there was a Scientific Revolution • The enlightenment was also called the Age of Reason • The chaos of the Reformation and wars of religion had shaken a belief system that had been accepted by society in the Middle Ages • People began looking for natural law, the conditions that govern human behavior • Thinkers began to believe that the problems of society could be solved through reasoning • One of the first philosophers to search for the natural laws of government was England’s Thomas Hobbes. • He believed that people by nature were bad and needed strong government • He believed that people could avoid the nature of being bad by entering into a social contract • This was an agreement to give up individual freedom to live in an organized society

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    The first interesting discussion about the idea of the decision from citizens to accept the rules of the law can be found in Platon and Socrates thoughts, but Thomas Hobbes it is seen as the philosopher who firstly analyzed the modern Social Contract perspective. Hobbes´ theory generally it is divided in two sections: the human behavior or motivation and his social contract theory, burn from the idea of state of nature, which means in his own words “the liberty that each man has to make his own decisions about how to use his own power for the preservation of his own nature—i.e. his own life—and consequently the liberty· of doing anything that he thinks is the aptest”. At the same time, Hobbes built the theory of Subjectivism to explain how humans are self-interested, as we pursue our individual best interest, so our motivation is based on the desire to improve our situation, and generally satisfy our own, individually subjective desires as possible. In addition, Hobbes argues that we are rational. In his idea, we have the capacity to identify our desires as efficiently and maximally as possible, but we do not evaluate our outputs.

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    The Enlightenment: Hobbes vs. Locke Two famous philosophers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, have contributed to modern political science by expressing their views on human nature and the general laws that man had to follow. Both of their views differed in terms of how man should live his life. These views will be shown by comparing both philosophers’ opinions on the nature of man, and the various laws that constituted. Man was naturally evil, selfish, and living in a state of war, according to Hobbes. He believed that “humans were created “bad” by their creator”, and were “condemned to live in a world where bad things happen” (The Enlightenment, 1650-1789, p. 6).

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    Thomas Hobbes is a political philosophy from the age of enlightenment. He is considered the founder of modern political philosophy. The work that he is most known for is Leviathan. This work was completed in 1651, and in it he discusses his view on the role of government in human lives based on his view of human behavior. Through this thought process, Hobbes comes to the conclusion that if humans seek peace, forfeiting your rights to a ruler, and keeping covenants, society will be taken out of a “state of nature.”

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    Leviathan Thomas Hobbes

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    Human beings will never get along with each other because everyone have their own desires and goals that keep them fighting for. In the book Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes describes three factors that leads to the state of war. The three factors are competition, distrust, and glory. People always compete with other because they cannot enjoy a single thing together. Human beings are never satisfied with what they have.

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    Disposition Theory We live in a media world, where we have lots of media tools that enables us lots of facilities, such as connect, share information, learn, get entertained and etc. It is obvious that media is very strong tool that has great impact on its audience. Beside its many features, one of the most important features of the media is entertainment. Throughout the centuries a great number of studies done, lots of theories introduced in order to explain and learn media effects, its impact, its ability to manipulate and many other issues.

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    When the United States was being founded, the men charged with the creation of this novel system of government drew inspiration from a number of well-known English political philosophers. One of the most overt influences, not merely on the Constitution, but even the Declaration of Independence, was John Locke’s Second Treatise of Government. His depiction of both the State of Nature and its transition into civil society served as the mirror to the American notion and understanding of the purposes of government. Another less discussed but no less intrinsic influence on the founding document came from Thomas Hobbes in his work, Leviathan.

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    Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher best known for his work on the theory of the social contract. The social contract relates to the question of the origin and legitimacy of political power. The Leviathan was published in 1651 and is one of the earliest and most important work contributing to the theory of the social contract. In the Leviathan Hobbes argues for a civil society, a commonwealth in which men should live under the rule of an all-powerful sovereign. Is Hobbes’ Commonwealth more than a reign of terror?

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    As such entities they ‘occupy an increasingly clearly defined physical space’ and ‘claim sole legitimate authority’. He states, that this feature of statehood is widely recognized by writers such as Hobbes, Engels, Weber, Mann and Giddens. (Pierson, 2011, p. 9) As he further illustrates, clearly defined borders are a rather new development that distinguishes the modern state from e.g. pre-modern empires. The latter, while being mostly extensive, had often vague physical limits(frontiers) and ‘rule was concentrated to the center of the empire’, meaning that outlaying territory was more independent in terms of governance and administration.

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    The Leviathan by Hobbes and Discourse on the Origin of Inequality by Rousseau both focus on the effect of the natural world on individuals, however they fiercely disagree on what effect the natural state actually has. Rousseau’s famous disagreement over the influence of the natural world on people provides readers with great insight to the reason for their dichotomy of beliefs on the role of hierarchy and power in their present societies. Their main philosophical difference is best understood through the role that nature plays on individuals. In both texts it becomes apparent that the natural world dictates the actions of individuals, in particular how they treat one another. Furthermore, because the natural world has such a strong influence

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    For the most part, philosophies of social contracts are developed from a heuristic perspective of human conditions known as the natural state or conditions that are lack social order. From this perspective, philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes attempt to explain the nature of humans and the rationality that was involved in giving up some of their freedom to create social structures. These theories, nonetheless differ widely on the basis of the author account and the natural state. This paper seeks to bring to light such differences.

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    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are infamous philosophers that shaped modern political theory, philosophy, ethics, etc. This essay seeks to analyze the differences and similarities between the states of nature each philosopher believes to exist. In this context, the term “state of nature” will mean the natural state of human relations without political or societal applications. It will be extremely important to keep in mind that “state of nature refers not to a specific place or time, but to a certain sort of relationship between individuals,” in order to better understand what is meant by Hobbes and Locke . This is the answer to the common question of “when did the state of nature exist in history?”

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    Ideologies that were created by John Locke and Thomas Hobbes clashed with one another. John Locke, an influential English enlightenment philosopher, believed that human beings are not evil by nature. Locke believed that human beings become evil choice after being socialized into their community, which is the person 's nurture. If a human is socialized with goodness, then, humans would not be evil, but if a human has been nurtured in evil and selfishness, the person will have malice within them. Thomas Hobbes, who was also a philosopher at the time, believed in the very opposite of what John Locke preached.

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    On the other hand, Werther takes an extremely Romantic approach, with his life and experiences demonstrating the limitations of a rational society. In Discourse on the Origin of Moral Inequality, Rousseau rationally determines that the emergence of society and the invention of property directly cause moral inequality between people, specifically, the rich and the poor. First, he establishes the state of nature as a basic system, with no complex morality or rationality involved, unlike the states of nature described by Hobbes and Locke. At the most fundamental degree, Rousseau places mankind at the same level as other animals.

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    Thomas Hobbes a 17th century philosopher who is best known for his political philosophy. The idea that nature is competitive, where morality only appears when we enter into society and it is backed up by the power of the sovereign. Hobbes define human nature as sensational because sensation is the source of all of our thoughts. We seek out pleasant experience and we avoid unpleasant experiences. For example death is an unpleasant experience where people are fearful losing their lives.

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