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Vertebrate Essays

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    extinction caused most of the vertebrate species to shrink to the size of a human forearm. Lauren Sallan, a paleobiologist at the University of Pennsylvania, states that the one-hundred thousand year long cold spell which occurred about three-hundred and fifty-nine million years ago during the end of the Devonian Period caused the growth of glaciers. This

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    Advantages Of Bipedalism

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    As a human it is easy to take our ability to walk upright for granted. After a few shaky toddler years, we learn, and the ability to sit upright and be bipedal simply comes naturally to us. However, on closer inspection we can see that bipedalism is no ordinary trait or random coincidence – bipedalism is one of most discerning human characteristics and is the result of millions of years of adaption in our ancestors that has led to modern human bipedalism. In this essay I am going to explore the

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    COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF AORTIC ARCHES IN VERTEBRATES DEFINITION: Aortic arches are also called as pharyngeal arteries. They are vascular structures that emerge from the ventricle of the heart. There are 6 pairs of these arches in embryonic stages which give rise to several major arteries later. They arise from the aortic sac and are present on the ventral and dorsal aorta. As discussed earlier that there are 6 pairs of aortic arches present in embryonic stages giving rise

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    Respiratory sounds can also define as breath sounds or lung sounds. It is generated through the turbulence of airflow in our respiratory tract. The air breath in and out are transmitted through air, liquid and solid and to the chest wall. Each properties of substance that the air attenuated lead to different degree and intensity of breath sounds (Jones, 1995a). Breath sounds can divided into three type, normal, abnormal and diminished (Alexandra Hough, 2001). Breath sound is useful in diagnosing

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    Respiration consists of transportation of oxygen from the atmosphere to the body tissues and the release and carriage of carbon dioxide formed in the tissues to the atmosphere. The human respiratory system is a series of organs responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. We can list the primary organs of the respiratory system as nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. During inspiration air passes through respiratory

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    Sleep Apnea Syndrome

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    The pharynx is a muscular tube that extends supero-inferiorly from the base of the cranium to the level of the inferior surface of the body of the sixth cervical vertebra. The pharynx lies dorsal to the nasal cavity, the oral cavity and the larynx. The nasal portion of the nasopharynx has bony elements in its wall and thus it is rigid, whereas the pharyngeal portion is contractile as a result of the muscular nature of its wall.4 The relationship between craniofacial morphology and respiratory function

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    Choca-Cola Did you know that 3 minutes of mediocre soda leads to a short life of heart problems, discomfort, and pain? Well, that's what I'm here for, not to scare you, but to inform you on coke and it's side effects. The sugars in coke and other sodas really damages the human body. Did you know that within 10 minutes of consumption of a 12 oz bottle of coke 10 ounces of sugar hit your system, I'm sure this isn't what you paid for. When the sugar immediately is sent to your liver, which then causes

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    Kimberly Ramos Mr. Johnson Honors Anatomy and Physiology January 8, 2016 Respiratory System The respiratory system is the system that helps humans breathe and allow every single human to perform everyday tasks. As researchers say the respiratory system consists of organs. The organs that make up the system are the nose, nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and muscles of the respiration. All these organs play a major role in the respiratory system. Scientists say

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    Cellular Respiration Aerobic Cellular Respiration is the process by which the cells in our body get energy to carry out their functions. Cellular respiration is necessary for all living things due to the fact that living things are made up of cells and all cells need energy to carry out their functions. It takes place in the mitochondria of mainly eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are considered the powerhouses of cells due to their high folds of energy. During aerobic respiration, oxygen is always

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    Essay On Tracheostomy

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    Tracheostomy is a procedure, in which an opening is created through the neck into the windpipe also known as the trachea to enable breathing and to open blocked airways. The purpose of tracheostomy is to improve alveolar ventilation in case of respiratory inadequacy, to create an alternative pathway for breathing, or to protect the airways by using a cuffed tube. This also allows for the air to enter the lungs therefore, the breathing is done through the tube. When a patient has tracheostomy they

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    Pinna The external ear comprises of pinna and external auditory canal. The elastic fibrocartilage forms the body of the pinna and is covered by skin which is attached loosely on its medial surface. This cartilage is avascular and derives its nutrition from the perichondrium. A unique pattern on the lateral surface of the pinna makes it characteristic for each individual and comprises of helix, antihelix, triangular fossa, scaphoid fossa, concha, tragus, antitragus, intertragic notch and lobule. The

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    Essay On Sinuses

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    THE SINUS BATTLE What Are Sinuses? Sinuses are air pockets found in the cranial (head) bones and are also referred to as “paranasal sinuses”. They are linked to the nose on the face where air passes and mucus drains. We have eight sinus cavities in total. They are paired on equal sides of our face, resulting in four pairs of sinus cavities. Each cavity has an opening called an ostium, leading to the nasal passages to exchange for air and mucus. The mucus linings have cells with fine hairs called

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    Thelma's Virgin Births

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    be triggered by extreme situations; it was only documented among captive animals, for example, perhaps by the stress, or isolation. Why among vertebrates, can fish, reptiles and birds have virgin births, but mammals, including humans, seemingly cannot? Even here, things aren 't straightforward Virgin turkeys Perhaps the best understood 'virgin ' vertebrate is the common domesticated turkey. Flora, a virgin Komodo dragon that gave birth Komodo dragons are also capable of virgin births Then in recent

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    Umapathy et al. 2003). Besides, tropical rain forests are home to world’s highest biodiversity including a highly complex and diverse vertebrate fauna (Harmelin-Vivien & Bourliere 1989). However, tropical rain forests are always manipulated and exploited for economic purposes (Mergen, 1981). The tropical rainforests

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    It was Saturday morning, and as usual I was up getting ready to go hiking. Every other Saturday I go hiking with my dog, Dell, who is really hyper. He loves going, and sometimes he will even wake me up. The place we go to hike is called Red Stone Hiking. It is a really popular place in the state of Georgia. I hopped up out of bed ready to get an early start. “Come on buddy,” I called out to Dell. He hopped out of his bed with passion. Dell ran to his food bowl ready to eat. I had bought him this

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    Vertebrates are known to be animals with backbones. Tooth reduction is one of the major evolutionary trends that developed among major vertebrate groups that allowed for the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. Evolution of limbs and being able to breath air are other evolutionary trends that took placeThese trends

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    to go through considerable and momentous reformations. All vertebrates now possess an endothelium. During the divergence of urochordates and cephalochordates, was when researchers first found the endothelium to appear, which leads some scientists to believe cardiovascular evolution really began somewhere closer to five hundred million years ago. Next scientists pondered why the endothelium was advantageous or beneficial to early vertebrates. Many have hypothesized

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    Danio Rerio Essay

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    fruit flies, were already widely available? At a cursory appraisal: D. rerio grows mere inches long, it is small, easily contained, and simple to care for; all are factors that make it practical for laboratory settings (Aleström et al 15). As a vertebrate animal, it is a more similar analog for a human being than a fruit

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    paralysis. There are still a lot of advances in paralysis. Some of the advancements are new equipment. Christopher Reeve helped research and paralyzed people through his organization Christopher Reeve fell off his horse and broke his top two vertebrates. Everyone wondered what happened to Reeve. People will remember Reeve for being the face of paralysis, and making the disease well known. Christopher Reeve improved technology in paralysis. His legacy will still live on and his intentions with

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    Essay On Monkeypox

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    Human monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the monkeypox virus (MPXV), a member of the genus Orthopoxvirus (family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae), that occurs mostly in the rain forests of central and western Africa. People living in or near the forested areas may have indirect or low-level exposure, possibly leading to subclinical infection. However, the disease recently emerged in the United States in imported wild rodents from Africa. Monkeypox has a clinical presentation very

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