In addition, the second issue is confidentiality. The counselor needs to build a trust relationship with the parents and adolescents with ADHD. For instance, the counselor needs to explain the medications effects and side effects to the parents and Junior. The APA (2013) believes culture may play a major role in ethical implications. In essence, adolescent behaviors may be different when it deals with attitudes concerns or clarification, which is less likely with African American and
Transference is the psychological phenomenon where it redirects emotions and feelings from one person to another. In addition, transference is the representative of a relationship from childhood. In the article, “Transference” by Goodtherapy.org, it explains, “Transference can also occur in various situations outside of therapy and may form the basis for certain relationship patterns in everyday life.” This explains when transference happens in early childhood, it may affect relationships throughout everyday life. As a result, a child’s emotion can impact him/herself negatively towards the future.
Erikson was highly influenced by Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical Theory of Development. Although, at first Freud was limited to childhood based on the phallic stage, Erikson focused on developing a lifespan theory. The eight stages are as followed: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy): The basic and fundamental psychological task is for infants to develop a sense that their needs will be met by the outside world. Is their caregiver responsive, reliable, and willing to meet their needs? That basic trust is facilitated by a responsive caregiver once an infant gets hungry, injured, or needs to be changed.
Social Control theory can be used as a reliable and valid psychosocial explanation of school violence, specifically in explaining the actions of the Columbine school shooters. Kempf-Leonard and Morris described control theory in their journal in a way that provides an explanation for how behavior conforms to that which is generally expected in society. Some control theories emphasize the developmental processes during childhood by which internal constraints develop. Social control theories, however, focus primarily on external factors and the processes by which they become effective. Deviance and crime occur because of inadequate constraints.
Confidentiality in research refers to the ability of the researchers to protect the identities and information provided by participants involved in the study. Research conducted on racial disparities has potential implications for participants to be subjected to unintentional biases that could impact policy and decisions. Longitudinal research also poses a concern for reliability. Research by Morgan (2013) used a discrete-time hazard model to observe if kindergarten students were experiencing disparities in diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through eighth
It is now too often the case industry conveys that information about mental disorders. While this education may be very beneficial in sensitizing populations to the mental health needs of children and adolescents it also holds the risk of distorted messages being conveyed to an anxious and needy populous, may limit the full potential of an appropriate diagnostic evaluation and limit the treatment options considered. Furthermore, oppression and domination are known to impact children and young adults in the foster care system. “Young people that are obstructed or prevented from becoming competent or from being able to communicate their opinions, desires, and emotions experienced a form of oppression” (Bruskas, Delilah, R.N., M.N. 2008).
Freud was inspired by this theory and believed that the mind has many flows. One of the strengths of psychodynamic intervention for is its capacity to identify underlying issues such as resentment and anger that may have their genesis in early childhood familial experiences. Secondly, psychodynamic therapy "places heavy emphasis on patients ' relationships and interpersonal experience" (Shedler, 2010, para.
The concern of the study is to know the long-term result of MBCT with the use of standardized measures of depressions (BDI-II), mindfulness (MAAS), and rumination (RSS) and the outcomes are collected yearly for 3 years. Thirty-nine participants were observed and the results showed a significant decrease in depression. Although the depression scores for the last year increased, it was still inside the normal range of BDI-II. Rumination and mind attention showed a strong negative correlation which means as rumination increases, the mind attention decreases and vice versa. It was therefore concluded that continued MBCT aids and training can help relapse prevention.
An emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying warning signs and risk factors for depression and suicide amongst teens. According to the research conducted by King and Vidourek (2012) early detection and suicidal warning signs is seen to be crucial for effective intervention. Teenagers need to be encouraged to be more proactive when it comes to their personal mental health. Positive coping mechanisms such as problem-solving skills, effective communication skills, and good conflict resolution skills are all essential in lessening the likelihood that a teen exhibiting depressive behaviors will go forth and take their own life. As most teenagers spend most of their time in school, better prevention and intervention programs need to be in place.
CLO: Understand basic classifications, indications, and contraindications of commonly prescribed psychopharmacologic al medications Week 4: Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: Anxiolytic Agents, Sedative-Hypnotics, and Antidepressants MFTs role is to recognize anxiety in children and help them cope. Divorce, violence in society, the media, the school system, can all contribute to stress and trauma in children. Other areas to keep in mind are gender differences in anxiety. Women report more anxiety in men, and these differences can be associated with factors of gender role expectations and more women than men seek treatment for mental health related issues.
The results they found concluded that there was a strong correlation between increased childhood stress and multisystem health risks in adulthood; in addition, having a loving and warm parental influence decreased the risk of multisystem health risks later in life (Carroll et al., 2013). All in all, participants who were abused as children and had no loving or warm parental influence were most at risk for disease and death in adulthood (Carroll et al., 2013). A limitation in this study was that it didn’t look at other psychosocial environment factors relating to the sources of abuse and warmth in childhood, so future studies done should look at factors within the psychosocial environment and see if they act as buffers for poor health in adults (Danese et al.,
Research In the case of Jessica, Cognitive Based Therapy (CBT), an exploration of relationship and feelings based therapy with a focus on outcomes should be applied. “Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents” (www.childpsych.com). According to research to examine Cognitive Based Therapy for anxiety in young children, “studies provide the empirical support necessary to make CBT the only psychological treatment identified to date as an evidence-based treatment” (www.effectivechildtherapy.org). CBT as form of treatment is useful as it can be administered through different design formats and settings best meeting the individuals need.
Dearden & Becker (2004) identified that the responsibilities exhibited by young carers depends upon the nature of the illness, which can include physical, mental, learning or sensory disabilities. Many researchers identify general caring responsibilities to include emotional support, domestic care, both looking after the adult and other siblings (Michail and Smyth:2010) However, as Becker and Aldridge (2003) highlighted the importance of establishing whether those caring for parental mental illnesses have distinct and particular needs. Similarly, Cox and Pakenham (2014) conducted research into measurement and structure of a measure called the Young Carer of Parents Inventory (YCOPI). The results suggest that there is a considerable difference in caregiving experiences within the range of young carers who were accessed by the YCOPI-A.
Pre-Professional Observations When it comes to treating PTSD, many forms of treatment have shown to be effective in treating symptoms associated with PTSD. Perhaps not just one treatment should be used. Avoidance to focus on the actual trauma and determine how the treatment impacts one cognitively (such as Prolonged Exposure Therapy) symptoms may reoccur even with coping strategies are put into place.