This paper seeks to explain Descartes method and arguments presented in his work The Meditation. Descartes arrives at a dualistic metaphysics, one that supports the belief that there are two fundamentally real things in the universe. The dualism discussed in this paper claims that these fundamental substances are the immaterial mind and material body. This is known as Cartesian Dualism. The process that Descartes uses to arrive at this conclusion is reflected in the title of his work: The Meditations.
Descartes’ metaphysics are difficult in that they are over lapped. To, satisfactorily, answer the question: Does Descartes correctly respond to the problem of how can mind and matter interact as different substances? We must capture a large breadth of Descartes arguments beginning with his famous “I think, therefore I am”. For the simplicity of the paper, I shall assume that Descartes argument(s) have been sound all the way into his description of mind and matter. It would seem impossible to respond to the question posed if it cannot even be said that Descartes satisfactorily distinguishes mind and matter as different substances.
In his piece Meditation III, Rene Descartes makes the argument that he could be the origin of his ideas of physical objects. From there, the first thing we must consider is where our thoughts come from. There are three types of ideas: Those that originate from outside himself, those that are created by himself and his own mind, and those that he is born with. The ideas that he is born with are called innate ideas.
The seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes is considered by many to be the founding father of modern philosophy. The seventeenth-century marked a turning point in history, Europeans began to explore the world by sea in search of new trade routes and moved away from the traditional Catholic Church to focus on scientific discoveries. One of Descartes most famous pieces of work was the Meditations on the First Philosophy, published in 1641. The Meditation on the First philosophy, which comprises of six meditations, is essentially summarizing a collection of thoughts Descartes had previously written about in his earlier text, the Discourse on Method.
We see many philosophers base their beliefs on something specific however Descartes philosophy comes from extreme scepticism also known as nihilism. He begins his philosophy by having disbelief in the true existence of anything at all. Descartes main aim was to attain certainty. He had a desire to be certain about the things that truly exist and those that do not. He believed that once he could be truly certain of one thing that he could re-build the world from there for the better.
René Descartes, considered to be the father of modern philosophy, was the first person to formulate a theory about mind-body dualism and to try to reject existence. By trying to prove that we do not exist, he found that there is no way that we do not exist. " Cogito Ergo Sum", which is a famous quote of Descartes, signifies that it is through thinking that we can affirm our existence. René Descartes reached this synthesis by several trial of doubting, but he could not doubt his existence because by ignoring his mind existence, he realised that it is a thinking process. Thus he confirmed that existence is true, and it is through thinking that it is acquired.
1. Answer: Descartes guaranteed that the mind and thoughts existed independently from the body. He guaranteed that thoughts were all the more real than the body. Notice his famous quote, I think accordingly I am. He doesn't say I have a physical body in this way I am.
In Fear and Trembling, essay of Preliminary Expectoration, Kierkegaard writes about those who carry the treasure of faith resembling a bourgeois philistinism. Kierkegaard talks about the knight of infinite resignation and how one is easily recognizable. He argues that infinite resignation is the final stage before faith and if someone has not made this movement, he or she does not have faith. It is only in infinite resignation that one becomes conscious of eternal validity. Kierkegaard sees the knight of infinite resignation as carrying out all the motions and suffering a lot of pain and anxiety.
David Hume was a skeptic, naturalist, and an atheist philosopher who belonged to a movement founded by John Locke. He strived to apply the sensible procedures for observation to an examination of human nature itself to develop the consequences of Locke 's experimentation. Hume argues that at the base of any system of thought and any science, man is faced with his daily world. This goes beyond the scope of every possible rational project. Man cannot be separated from his experiences, just as there cannot be separate experiences of a thinking ego.
Berkeley was an idealist and claimed that abstract ideas are the source of all philosophical perplexity and illusion. In his Introduction to the Principles of Human Knowledge he argued that, as Locke described abstract ideas they cannot, in fact, be formed, they are not needed for communication or knowledge, and they are inconsistent and therefore inconceivable. In the Principles Berkeley defends two metaphysical theses: idealism (the claim that everything that exists either is a mind or depends on a mind for its existence) and immaterialism (the claim that matter does not exist).