Cranioplasty is the surgical repair of acquired or congenital defects of cranium. Archeological evidences suggest that in prehistorical era , cranial defect reconstruction was done with gold, silver and shells. Later it was followed by the use of bone grafts, metal and plastics.[2,3]Apart from metals like titanium, Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the latest material being used for cranioplasty. It was first utilized in 1940 and can be moulded intraoperatively by hands or using 3D printed models into the shape of a cranial defect.
Prefabricated Titanium implants have been successfully solving this purpose of cranioplasty ,but are quite expensive especially in developing countries. In modern era, for getting desired shape, size and better cosmetic results, the use of three-dimensional (3D) …show more content…
Alloplastic material is required when autogenous bone is not available as in calvarial tumour resections, bone infections or bone discarded during craniectomies. Now a days PMMA and titanium are most widely used alloplastic materials. Preparation of implants can be done in two ways - by hands and by computer generated 3D models [11,12]. Hand fabrication is cheaper and less time consuming technique but desired outcome with respect to shape and size is difficult. The 3D printing technology helps us to prepare prefabricated implants or models to mould grafts intraoperatively. This method has become immensely popular as it does not require original bone flap and has produced superior fitting and cosmetic results.
3D printing technology is an evolving branch and its clinical application is growing rapidly. The convenience and affordability of this technology have spurred its adoption in variety of medical fields, especially in planning complex craniofacial reconstructions [14,15].
The procedure for the fabrication of medical models (templates) consists of multiple
The Dmanisi skull 4, also known as D3444 with its mandible D3900, is one of five Homo erectus skulls discovered in Dmanisi, Georgia. Described in a publication in October 2006, it is believed to be about 1.8 million years old. Dmanisi D3444/D3900 is believed to be a Homo erectus adult female with a marked edentulous (toothless) grin. The cranium (D3444) was found first in 2002 and the mandible (D3900) was found later in 2004, immediately adjacent to the spot the cranium was found. The brain has an endocranial capacity of 650 cm.
Once the digital reconstruction was done the skull was compared with those of ancient and living primates in museums
Relaxed in the dental chair with my dark glasses on, I had been prepped and was ready for my second surgery. My headphones played beautiful, calming classical music. A micro-current patch placed behind each of my ears would help to keep me in a relaxed state. I could taste the remnants of the orange flavored supplements used to promote the relaxation response. My biological dentist and his assistant talked in the background as we waited for the anesthetic to take effect.
Total Hip Resurfacing With the evolution in advancement in the medical field, the old practiced of hip resurfacing is no longer active. The process is lined in such manner that the hip bone is capped and reframed through metal prosthesis. This surgery has an advantage over traditional means as the hip socket is secured by means of metal cup. It also helps in lasting longer and little discharge of metal ions during surface rubbing.
As 3D printing in the medical field is still evolving, it is unsure the long term effects. Unable to see the possible detrimental effects of artificial cells, organs, and tissues can be very dangerous. In the same way that the technology in the “Happylife home” was ultimately a fatal detriment to the Hadley family. As research proceeds more information is sure to emerge about the future of 3D printing in the medical
A patient will lie on the side opposite of the one in need of repair. An incision will be made above the socket down to the upper femur. After cutting through the appropriate muscles to get to the bone, the hip joint must be dislocated. This allows the socket to be more accessible, and gives the opportunity to harvest the stem cells. The bone inside the socket will be shaved down to fit the cup, and it will be drilled into the socket.
In the past they would not have operated on patients if the operation was to tricky, but they can now operate and help out all of their of their patients. There are about 75 hospitals in the U.S. that have 3D printers and about 200 worldwide that have 3D
3D printing makes devices accessible to others, however producing these devices, enters a medical and technical field. Unfortunately, there are many 3D printing organizations that are making devices that are not safe and will cause long-term damage. Just to give an example, the tissues in the arm are very sensitive and it requires highly technical skills and knowledge to produce devices that can work properly for the patients, especially for the upper limb. Meaning, hands, and arms, which is what Enable Community Foundation focus on. Otherwise, patients will have long-term medical consequences such as back problems, or will abandon the devices.
MODALITIES OF FEMORAL FIXATION The goals of femoral component revision are to achieve implant stability while restoring hip biomechanics. Multiple fixation options exist for proximal femoral reconstruction including cemented components with or without associated bone restoration techniques, uncemented components, and patient specific implants such as modular or custom components. As previously mentioned, the Paprosky classification is most commonly used to describe proximal femur deficiency [31-33, 52]. This classification scheme allows effective communication between surgeons and is a good predictor of surgical complexity.
One of such advances is artificial intelligence which has been greatly improved in healthcare. In the future, there are impressions that artificial intelligence will surpass human ability in healthcare, such as to raise concern in some quarters Nilsson & Sollenborn (2004). Robots operating with artificial intelligence, have played significant role in healthcare and they are expected to also improve in there usability Nilsson & Sollenborn (2004). Another area of potential advancement in healthcare sciences, is the application of 3 Dimensional (3-D) printing technology for the repair or replacement of organs in the human body. As the technology improves, it is hoped that, human wellbeing and in some cases, life can be improved with the use of 3-D printed body parts, thus, whereas the concept is undergoing testing and review, the future of 3-D technology in healthcare sciences appears bright.
Group 1: Twenty five eyes for which a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty was done using double bubble modification of the big bubble technique as described by Foroutan and Dastjerdi (2007). All cases were operated by a single experienced anterior segment surgeon. The recipient operative procedure was done first before stripping the descement membrane from the donor so as not to lose the graft if large DM perforation occurred and the surgeon decided to covert to PKP and it was done as follows: 1- Moxifloxacin HCl ophthalmic solution 0.5% was administrated for one to two days preoperatively, four times daily, to reduce the risk of infection.