B. Hashimoto’s disease is much more common in women than men. 1. Wilmar Wiersinga of the Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, in The Netherlands states that “The incidence of autoimmune hypothyroidism is about 350 cases/100,000/year for women and 60 cases/100,000/year for men in iodine-sufficient regions and 44 (females) and 12 (males) per 100,000 per year in iodine-deficient areas.” 2. Although the disease often occurs in adolescent or young women, it more commonly appears between 30 and 50 years of age.
When you think of an autoimmune disease, you may think of something more common; such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes, or much more. Graves’ disease though; is an immune system disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones, also known as hyperthyroidism. (“mayo clinic”) Several other disorders may result in hyperthyroidism, but this is a very common cause. Graves disease can affect anyone, but is more common in women that are over the age of 40.
Myxedema is the severest form of hypothyroidism and at this stage there is a swelling and thickening of the skin and if left untreated myxedema can lead to coma and death…this is because the thyroid gland doesn’t produce enough of the much needed thyroid harmones that the body needs to function
Addison’s Disease is a rare disorder where the adrenal glands, that’s located directly above the kidney, does not produce enough of the cortisol hormone. Addison’s disease can be separated into 2 sub conditions, primary adrenal insufficiency and secondary adrenal insufficiency. People with primary adrenal insufficiency suffer from both a lack of the aldosterone hormone and the cortisol hormone the adrenal glands produce. People with secondary adrenal insufficiency only suffers with a lack of cortisol. The disease is found in every age group and both sexes.
Cushing’s Syndrome is a disease that involves an excess of the Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, most likely because of cancerous cells (Helm). This causes an excess of cortisol to be made in the adrenal gland which creates the symptoms known as Cushing’s Syndrome. This can also be caused by a tumor on the adrenal gland which causes an overproduction of cortisol (Helm). Cortisol is a steroid hormone which helps regulate blood sugar as well as aid in the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
The median age was 50 years (range: 18–89years). All had pathological confirmation of the diagnosis. The male to female ratio was 1:1.2. Nonfunctional pituitary adenomas represented 60% (109/183) of the tumors. Median follow-up was 36 months (range: 1week - 78 months).
Pathophysiology ANAT1066 Case study assessment Case study (b) INTRODUCTION Base on the clinical and laboratory data provided, the patient is suffering from Graves’ disease, a cause of hyperthyroidism which is a type of thyrotoxicosis. Clinical manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD) includes diffuse thyroid enlargement, palpitation and hyperthyroidism (Fukishima et al 2009). Other symptoms are ophthalmophathy which result in exopthalmos (bulging of the eye), and dermopathy (oedema) (mencori et al 2014). Hyperthyroidism has some symptoms such as heat intolerance, sweating and weight loss (mencori et al 2014). Tachycardia (a faster than normal heart rate at rest) and bruit (indicate hyper dynamic circulation) are among
Because of to much cortisol it could cause some hallmark signs: like hypertension, obesity, weakness of muscles, a tendency to develop bruises. Some typical characteristics are: rapid deposit of fat; this rapid deposit of fat can be found between the shoulders it is called “buffalo hump”. There are also changes of a rounded
The cause is passed down from mother to son through the X link chromosome making this disease affect the male child.
Symptoms of Hurthle cell carcinoma are similar to those seen in other types of thyroid cancers. These include: • Appearance of a lump at the neck • Voice change that does not get better • Shortness of breath • Sore throat • Difficulty swallowing • Persistent cough not caused by a respiratory problem Part 3: What Causes Hurthle Cell Carcinoma? The exact cause of Hurthle cell carcinoma is not known.
“Lymphoid tissue, cells and organs that make up the lymphatic system, such as white blood cells, bone marrow, and the thymus spleen, and lymph nodes” (The Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica). Lymphoid tissue is a big part of Hodgkin disease, so to fully understand the disease an individual must learn that the lymphoid tissue is very important for the human body. Lymphoid tissue is extremely important as an immune response and it also helps protect the body from infection and invaders. Simply, Hodgkin disease is the expansion of lymphoid tissue and the existence of Reed-Sternberg cells that are found in the lymph nodes. Reed-Sternberg cells “are large, often multinucleated with a peculiar morphology and an unusual immunophenotype, that does
What is Lupus? It is believed that 5 million people throughout the world have a form of lupus. More than 16,000 new cases of lupus are reported annually across the country. Lupus is a chronic, autoimmune disease that can damage any part of the body.
CASE: John Smith is an 11 year old Asian boy with PMHx of hypothyroidism x 2 years, on levothyroxine 25 mcg daily presented with painful progressively enlarging goiter that started 2 months ago. The pain is described as constant shooting and radiating to the neck, rated 6/10, nothing made it better, moving his neck made it worse. Pt states that the pain is mostly localized to the right, and it is associated with compressive symptoms like difficulty breathing and swallowing, but no change in voice. The swelling was painful and progressive and at the time of examination was 2 × 2 cm on the right side of the neck and was moving with deglutition. She had no other complaints and her family history was noncontributory.
Recently, doctors have found a treatment for hypoparathyroidism. But, the treatment results in regular injections of calcium into the body. It is like receiving another IV, except the fact that this is pure calcium. Studies show that this helps cure the disorder little by little, but there are serious side effects that occur as the patient gradually gets older. The side effects of the calcium injection include “cancer, loss of hair, thyroid getting destroyed, and diabetes” (Timmons M. 234).