Nervous System Research Paper

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A. Theoretical Background:
The nervous system is categorized into two different divisions: The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS mainly consists of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists of the nerve impulses that carry synapses to and from the spinal cord. It includes the cranial nerves such as ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors. The PNS can also be divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous system, which is divided further into the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions.
The brain is an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity. It is divided into four main
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First, the frontal lobe which controls conscious thought, abstract thinking, affective reactions, memory, judgment, and initiation of motor activity. Second, is the parietal lobe which controls sensory functioning and sensory perception. Third, is the temporal lobe which processes auditory information and auditory association (Wernicke’s area) and lastly, is the occipital lobe which controls visual processing and association. The cerebellum, which is separated from the brainstem by the fourth ventricle, lies under the occipital lobe of the cerebrum and is the second largest part of the human brain. It plays a major role in balance, posture, fine movement and coordination. The diencephalon or interbrain lies between the brainstem and the cerebrum, where it encircles the third ventricle. It consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus. The pineal gland, which is responsible for the hormone secretion of melatonin, is also located in the diencephalon. The thalamus is a dumbbell-shaped structure that encloses the third ventricle of the brain. It acts as a relay center that receives information from the body via the spinal cord and forwards this on to the appropriate areas of the brain. The thalamus plays a crucial role in the conscious awareness of pain and the limbic system of the brain. It also controls instinctual and emotional drives, e.g. hunger, fear, sexual drive and short-term…show more content…
It consists of bundles of nerve fibers that join the lower parts of the brainstem and the spinal cord with the higher parts of the brain. The midbrain is the center for auditory and visual reflexes and plays a role in controlling wakefulness of the brain. The pons means ‘bridge’ in Latin, therefore it connects the midbrain to the medulla and cerebrum. It plays as an important role in controlling the rate and length of respiration. The medulla oblongata is an extension of the spinal cord as it lies just inside the cranial cavity above the large hole in the occipital bone called the foramen magnum. Within it, contained a number of reflex centers for control of blood vessel diameter, heart rate, breathing, coughing, swallowing, vomiting and sneezing. On either side of the medulla oblongata is a round oval protrusion called olive, which plays a part in controlling balance, co-ordination and the intonation of sound impulses. The reticular formation (RF) is a dense network of neurons that evolves from the medulla and midbrain and extends through the brainstem, and is important in the control of consciousness, arousal and the sleep-wake

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