Divisions of the Telencephalon The brain is divided into three parts, namely the forebrain, midbrain and the hindbrain. Telencephalon is the anterior part of the forebrain and contains the left and the right cerebral hemispheres(Freberg, 2009). The main divisions of the telencephalon are the cerebral cortex, which is made up of gray matter, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the olfactory bulb and the basal ganglia. Primary functions of each division
The nervous system consists of two divisions; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is the combination of the nerves within the skull and spine, while the peripheral nervous system is the nervous system that goes everywhere inside (autonomic nervous system) and outside (somatic nervous system) around the body except skull and spine. The somatic nervous system has two kinds of nerves; afferent nerves that carry sensory signals from the external parts of the body to center, and efferent nerves which carry motor signals from central nervous system to muscular system.
Involuntary rhythmic movements are produced within the skull; this circulatory activity causes reciprocal tension between the membranes thus transmitting motion between them (Downey, 2004). Sutherland describes dilation of lateral ventricles as inhalation; it occurs in the third and forth ventricle which causes the spinal cord to be pulled upwards resulting in fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid. On a similar
It’s contributes to the multiple regions of the skull: anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal roof, , orbit, lateral wall of the cranial vault and roof and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, It’s articulates with the following bones: The ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, the zygomatic bones, the parietal bones, the temporal bones, the palatine bones, occipital bone and the vomer (Liebgott, 2011). It is consist from four main part : and three paired processes—greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes (Tandon, 2009) 3.1.2 body of sphenoid bone• Its reprecent the central part and contains two sphenoidal air sinuses, It has multiple surfaces: Superior surface—bears a sulcus chiasmaticus and Dorsum sellae with two posterior clinoid processes lie posteriorly Inferior surface—has the rostrum, Two lateral surfaces—Each has a carotid sulcus for internal corotid artery. Anterior surface—presents sphenoidal crest in midline.
Stylohyoid ligament is attached to the lesser horn, the hyoid bone is suspended with long stylohyoid ligaments from the styloid process of the temporal bone of the outer skull base and maintains the position of the hyoid bone(4)(1). Anatomically the hyoid is composed of a body, two greater cornua and two lesser cornua. Each cornu is attached to the body by syn- chondrosis that calcifies with ageing. The tip of the cornu are directed postero-laterally. The important attachments of the hyoid are myelohyoid, omohyoid, thyorohyoid and stylohyoid(1).
• Sensory Sensory nerves transmit sensations such as touch and pain to the spinal cord and from there to the brain, • Autonomic. Autonomic nerves control the caliber of blood vessels, heart rate, gut contraction and other functions not under conscious control. Local anesthetic solution injected into the subarachnoid space blocks conduction of impulses along all nerves with which it comes in contact, Dorsal sensory roots are blocked more easily than the smaller anterior roots due to the organization of the dorsal root into bundles which expose a larger surface area to local anesthetic solutions.
Axons descend form the pyramidal cells to the spinal cord and it conveys nerve impulses from the motor cortex to innervate skeletal muscles on the opposite side of the body (Tortora, et al, 2011). For this reason the function of the pyramidal system is to transmit information to control movement associated with the performance of the fine motor skills (Magill, 2014). Klawans (1996, p.88) stated that “it tells the spinal cord neurons when to perform a specific movement and precisely what to do in order to carry out that task: take a step, lift the leg, and bend both the hip and the
We cannot see the bones because it is covered by the mucosa ( moist , pink tissue covering the body parts ). When you open your mouth you can see the hard palate which is present in front of your mouth. Hard palate is made up of processes of maxilla and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. It is bounded: • Anteriorly and Laterally : alveolar arches or maxillary teeth • Superiorly : respiratory epithelium of nasal cavity • Inferiorly : masticatory epithelium of oral cavity • Posteriorly : connected to the soft palate Blood supply of hard palate is mainly from greater palatine artery and nerve supply is via tha anterior palatine and nasopalatine nerves.  2.
The mammalian ear is composed of three parts: the outer, the middle, and inner ears (Fig
The Somatic nervous system has two neutrons. Those two neutrons are sensory neurons and motor neurons. The sensory neurons job is to carry information to the central nervous system. The motor neurons job is to carry information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscle fibers throughout the