Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Jean-Jacques and Rousseau were philosophers who made highly influential arguments on how a social contract should take form. A social contract is a concept of a consensus thought to be mutually beneficial between and for individuals, groups, government or a community as a whole. All three philosophers use a social contract theory as a means of explaining the necessity of a government in a given society. The aim of this essay is to establish the commonalities and differences between the proposed concepts of social contracts as envisioned by each of the great minds.
John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau are two important political philosophers whose work helped shape notions of the state of nature and property rights. In Locke’s The Second Treatise of Government, and Rousseau’s, Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract, they discuss their respective views on the state of nature, and how the government should solve the problems posed by political life. Both Locke and Rousseau propose a government with limited powers based on an original consent, but their arguments diverge with regard to property rights. Locke argues that property rights preexist society, and that men leave the state
Jean-Jacque Rousseau - Comparisons with the above two philosophers and opinions on the State and Law.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s “The Social Contract” is one of the essentials of the western political thought, interpreted in an extensive and different ways. It encompasses Rousseau’s all-inclusive account of his explicitly political theory where he presents his philosophy in an intangible, legalistic manner far from examination of human essence and changes and developments peculiar to people. As stated by Strauss, the Social Contract is a breakthrough in the course of development of political philosophy, which needs to be estimated accurately because of its content and its further repercussion for the modern history of humanity.
The Age of Enlightenment lasted from the 1620s to the 1780s, and was a period of time where many great thinkers emphasized individual freedoms and logical reasoning. Enlightenment challenged many prominent organizations, such as the Roman Catholic Church and some governmental organizations. One Enlightenment thinker, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Voltaire), thought that “government should be responsible for the people and supply to them freedom and happiness. The people thus agree to be governed on such terms1”. Voltaire believed that the government should cater to the people’s needs, and not control its citizens and take away their freedoms. In addition, he also thought that people should have a right to choose how their government governed them.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an educated watchmaker, political scientist and philosopher born in Geneva, Switzerland in 1712. He well-known as a famous French speaking philosopher, but he always describe himself as being Genevan. In addition, when he was 10 years old his family forced to flee Geneva to Paris. Moreover, Rousseau lived in 18th century during the age of enlightenment, his political ideology influenced the French revolution (1789-1799) and aided the development of nationalism and socialist theories. Rousseau provided his life for reading and writing he wrote a music, philosophy, romantic books, for such a reason like that many later philosopher were influenced by him. As well as the most famous works is The Social Contract book. The Social Contract contained on four main book and each book contain several chapters. In The Social Contract he believed that men were born good and innocent, and the corruption and sadness happened because of life experience and experience in
Jean-jacques Rousseau was a famous french philospher, writer and composer from the 18th centery. His philoshofical views and ideas where recongised by many different people from all around the world. Jeans most famous views,quotes and books where mainly on the french revoulution, the overall devolopment of modern politics and education.one of rousseaus most famouse quotes was
A standout amongst the most essential components of common life as portrayed by Rousseau is freedom. Opportunity as comprehended by these men is communicated as a positive ordeal. Every man has through and through freedom. Each man is his own particular ace. Imperatively, this is not a philosophical thought but rather a mental idea. Every man has control over their lives and activities. Flexibility is then not simply absence of limitation, but rather a dynamic practice of distinction. Dissimilar to Hobbes and Locke, this type of freedom contains the possibility of positive activity as opposed to just being the consequence of limitation from harm. This is the popular refinement between the positive and negative thoughts of freedom. The positive thought is one where an individual has freedom to go about as an ethical operator. The negative thought is the place the freedom an individual has is characterized by being shielded from obstruction from others.
In the modern day and age, government has become increasingly important because of the availability of resources and the speed at which information can travel. The principles and ideals which the U.S. government is founded on, and even the ideas that the Founding Fathers expressed in their creation of our government, originate from the philosophies of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau. Without their brilliant thinking, America would not be as it is today – the pinnacle of democracy and freedom.
Political philosophers: Jean Jacques Rousseau and Edmund Burke had quite opposing viewpoints, particularly on their political ideals. Rousseau and Burke’s perspectives on what the political system should be are directly influenced by the assumptions held in their personal beliefs on the origins of inequality. While they both articulate their positions, there is a severe lack of evidence and sustenance for the underlying assumptions in Burke’s argument of education and the social hierarchy, which is why Rousseau’s concepts are more compelling. However, when compared economically Burkes concepts have greater value.
John Locke, an English philosopher and physician respected as one of the most powerful of Enlightenment thinkers. Locke’s writing influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, but most importantly American revolutionaries. (www.historytoday.com) He rejected absolutism, Advocated for natural rights, believed humans were reasonable and moral.
The Declaration of Independence announced and explained the separation of the thirteen American colonies from Great Britain and was primarily written by Thomas Jefferson. Created in 1776 and adopted by the Second Continental Congress, this document deemed the colonies were no longer a part of the Britain Empire and regarded themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states. It demonstrates, in a preamble, the need of political independence with a reasonable explanation necessary for the colonies to overthrow the ruler when the government chooses to harm natural rights. The Declaration states that all men are created equal and have certain unalienable rights in which the government should under no circumstances violate. If the government
Jean Jacque Rousseau was born in the city state of Geneva, Switzerland in 1772. Rousseau is primarily known for major works like- The Social Contract, Emile, Discourse on the origin of Inequality, the Constitutional Project for Corsica, and Consideration on the Government of Poland. What makes Rousseau such an important figure in the history of philosophy is because of his contribution to both political and moral philosophies and his concept of ‘general will’, which also gained him a lot of criticism. Apart from his philosophical and political contribution, he was also a novelist, an autobiographer, botanist, composer and also a music theorist. Rousseau’s his political philosophies flows through his moral philosophies. In order to understand this better, let me begin by explaining in details both his moral and political philosophies
Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, examines the problem with modern political institutions. He attempts to demonstrate how the progression of human reason leads to the corruption of human virtue, and the establishment of modern moral inequality. Rousseau argues that the state of nature is more effective for preserving human society, because humans are able to live equally under the natural sentiments of pity and compassion. Rousseau’s argument for human equality would disapprove of the advances in modern day science and technology. He believes that humans would be more compliant in society, if they remained as inarticulate animals or simple savages.
Adam Smith is obviously interested in what markets, people, and nations do naturally in order to accumulate wealth; hence the word ‘nature’ being in the long title of the book. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as any decent political philosopher, is also interested in nature and human nature. However, both authors seem to take for granted that their readers would intuitively know what they mean when they use iterations and phrases using the word ‘nature.’ This word is used frequently enough, especially in philosophical texts, that the actual meaning of the word and of phrases containing the word have often been obscured or lost their meaning. It implies a state of being or doing based in what is organic as opposed to what is artificial or manufactured.
The two Enlightenment readings that spoke to me and made me think the most, were Hume and Rousseau. Though I do think that all of Hume’s writings have good points to them, the section that I will be focusing on the most is “A Treatise of Human Nature”, due to how relatable it is to my life. I foundThe reason that I find Rousseau thought invoking is because he goes against what I believe and it made me think of why I believe what I believe.
The farther back in time social historical thought goes, the further from our concept of humanity our ancestors get. Established as the State of Nature, Rousseau claims that man or “noble savages” once lived in a Golden Age where natural society was described with “independence”, “amour de soimême” or self-love, and pity. Rousseau elevates noble savages to a humanity far above any modern man of his time. He does this because to him the State and its constructs has distance us from our pure forms, a theme consistent in his literature. In fact, to Rousseau, “[m]an is made weak by human society by the way that society is developed”. Humanity from tis onset is pure only to be corrupted by self-interest. When applying this to the State he lives
The Creature in his “State of Nature” exhibits his heroic temperament when helping humans in distress. The state of nature is a concept that was created during The Enlightenment by philosophers. It is essentially the state that man is when they were first brought onto Earth. During this state “men having no moral relations or determinate obligations one with another, could not be either good or bad, virtuous or vicious” (Discourse on Inequality, 18). Described by famous philosopher, Rousseau, humans in the state of nature are neutral, neither good nor bad, but it is the development of societies that causes evil. This quote tells us that humans being neither good nor bad, are isolated, peaceful, and ignorant. This is important because this
Known as the modern Plato, Jean Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher and writer of the 18th century, left his mark in many areas from politics to the economy to education. According to Rousseau as societies evolve over time, people become interdependent and lose their original freedom and this can be seen in political communities where people live in dependence on each other and where inequality between men is highly rated. In the state of nature man lives alone, independent and free but when it begins to live in a society, he loses his original condition of freedom; he first begin to live as a family, then the families are grouped into societies and these later will create the state. The people are like the slaves, they would sell their freedom
The Age of the Enlightenment lasted roughly from the 1650’s to the 1780’s. During this period, a group of men known as “philosophers” published their views and ideals. Although they did not all have the same beliefs, they all equally expressed their views on modern western society covering topics such as universal liberty, equality and justice, democracy, science and technology, progress, individualism, optimism, happiness, human life, economic prosperity and market freedom (Zafirovski, 2010, p. 2). Leading thinkers from this era include John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes. Their ideals soon spread from Europe to the rest of the world.