Jean-Jacques Rousseau Essays

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    Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau have become known as three of the most prominent political theorists in the world today. Their philosophies and innovative thinking is known worldwide and it has influenced the creation of numerous new governments. All three thinkers agree on the idea of a social contract but their opinions differ on how the social contract is established and implemented within each society. These philosophers state, that in order for the social contract to be successful people need to give up certain freedoms in order to secure fundamental protections from the state, henceforth the state then has certain responsibilities to their citizens. Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau all believe that before men were governed we all lived in a state of nature.

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    The questions of the whether social inequality is justified and the extent of government to address said inequality are some of the foundations upon which societies and economies are built. Two key philosophers on this issue – John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau – differ on this subject. In Two Treatises on Government, Locke holds that individuals have a right to property derived from their labor, citizens consent to the existence of inequality in society, and governments are instituted among men to protect said property. In contrast, Rousseau writes in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality and The Social Contract that inequality should be strictly limited and that governments have a duty to act in the best interest of its citizens by maintaining

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    Thomas Hobbes and Jacques Rousseau on the state of nature The world is always filled with rigid dichotomies: good and evil, left and right, McDonald’s and Burger King -- just to mention some of them. The political theory in the 17th century seemed to have experienced a similar trend. The nature of government, more specifically the state of men, were often questioned, like the debate between Democrats and Republicans today. In 17th century Europe, the two major viewpoints on the issue were best exemplified by the writings of Thomas Hobbes, and Jacques Rousseau.

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    Thursday, June 28th, 1712 a great philosopher was born who would change the face of government as we know it, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau grew up in Geneva, Switzerland. At the age of 15 Rousseau ran away from home and ended up roaming France. Rousseau ending up living with Francoise-Louise de Warens with whom he had a very intimate relationship with and fell in “love” with. During this time Rousseau began to study music, math and philosophy.

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    Rousseau’s Amour-propre in the Inclination to Publicize the Private Confessionals that disclose the innermost self can be described as a Romantic expression- Romantic in the way Rousseau is a Romantic. Rousseau has established the Romantic paradigm: “the recounting of the history of the self so that the self can concurrently create itself in writing and affirm that self it has created” (Gutman 108). Central to Romantic confessions is Rousseau 's concept of amour-propre. Neuhouser defines amour-propre by differentiating it from amour de soi. Amour de soi focuses on "self-preservation," whereas amour-propre refers to the aspiration of being regarded in terms of "merit and honor" (Neuhouser 30).

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    Jean Jacques Rousseau’s On the Origin of Inequality among Men is one of the most important pivotal publications in history, especially when it comes to social development. From the origin of man to his present day, Rousseau explored and dissected the evolution of the conscience and social hierarchy of men. More specifically, Rousseau delved into the reasons why there is inequality among individuals in society today, notably the differences in individuals in different fields and the capability of individuals for a job. In my opinion, this publication is a social educational weapon for society today.

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    CHECKED BY SIR CHRISTIAN. Leila Diane Mendoza HMS11 On the Social Contract (1762) Jean-Jacques Rousseau “Man is born free, and everywhere he in chains.” It is accurate but debatable.

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    This essay will analyse and assess whether the claim that Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s argued in “Children Should Not Be Reasoned with” is cogent. It is cogent because his claims about education making a reasoning man is the reason why children should not be educated to be a reasoning man, is sound since the ending conclusion is true and does follow after the premises, which makes it valid. When analysing the article, it is best understood that it is a deductive argument. A deductive argument is one where a leading conclusion is followed by a series of premises, in which it makes the conclusion impossible to be false if the premises are true.

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    For the most part, philosophies of social contracts are developed from a heuristic perspective of human conditions known as the natural state or conditions that are lack social order. From this perspective, philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes attempt to explain the nature of humans and the rationality that was involved in giving up some of their freedom to create social structures. These theories, nonetheless differ widely on the basis of the author account and the natural state. This paper seeks to bring to light such differences.

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    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, born June 28th,1712 in Geneva, Switzerland. His mother died in labor and he was raised by his father, who taught him to believe that the city of Geneva was a republic as wonderful as Sparta or ancient Rome. Rousseau´s father married above his class and got in trouble with the authorities by brandishing the sword that his upper-class pretentions prompted him to wear, forcing him to leave Geneva to escape imprisonment. Jean-Jacques had to live with his mother’s family who treated him poorly and humiliated him, making him flee the city just as his father. At just 16 years old he left his family and went to live an adventurous life as a Roman Catholic in France and Sardinia.

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    The Age of the Enlightenment lasted roughly from the 1650’s to the 1780’s. During this period, a group of men known as “philosophers” published their views and ideals. Although they did not all have the same beliefs, they all equally expressed their views on modern western society covering topics such as universal liberty, equality and justice, democracy, science and technology, progress, individualism, optimism, happiness, human life, economic prosperity and market freedom (Zafirovski, 2010, p. 2). Leading thinkers from this era include John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes. Their ideals soon spread from Europe to the rest of the world.

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    In Sweden, during the Age of Liberty the power of the state moved from monarch to the parliament where the people were paying taxes, like the farmers were represented in parliament and their power were limited, plus the people that were not paying taxis did not had the right to vote. In 1755 the Corsican Constitution give the right to women and all men above 25 to vote. (56,57 reference democracy w) Jean-Jacques Rousseau that he was sometimes more radical democrat than Locke, in his most important and influential work “The Social contract” (1762) addressed that a democracy is not compatible with representatives and that the moment the people allows themselves to be represented, they are no longer free or exist. Rousseau was a strong supporter of direct democracy and believed that if a political association is not small enough to practice direct democracy then they will be replaced by a nation-state association and as a result will stop been democratic. Furthermore, he wrote that “it is against the natural order for the many to govern and the few to be governed and that where are people of gods then the government is democratic, so perfect government is not for men”.

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    Known as the modern Plato, Jean Jacques Rousseau, a philosopher and writer of the 18th century, left his mark in many areas from politics to the economy to education. According to Rousseau as societies evolve over time, people become interdependent and lose their original freedom and this can be seen in political communities where people live in dependence on each other and where inequality between men is highly rated. In the state of nature man lives alone, independent and free but when it begins to live in a society, he loses his original condition of freedom; he first begin to live as a family, then the families are grouped into societies and these later will create the state. The people are like the slaves, they would sell their freedom

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    The Creature in his “State of Nature” exhibits his heroic temperament when helping humans in distress. The state of nature is a concept that was created during The Enlightenment by philosophers. It is essentially the state that man is when they were first brought onto Earth. During this state “men having no moral relations or determinate obligations one with another, could not be either good or bad, virtuous or vicious” (Discourse on Inequality, 18). Described by famous philosopher, Rousseau, humans in the state of nature are neutral, neither good nor bad, but it is the development of societies that causes evil.

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    The farther back in time social historical thought goes, the further from our concept of humanity our ancestors get. Established as the State of Nature, Rousseau claims that man or “noble savages” once lived in a Golden Age where natural society was described with “independence”, “amour de soimême” or self-love, and pity. Rousseau elevates noble savages to a humanity far above any modern man of his time. He does this because to him the State and its constructs has distance us from our pure forms, a theme consistent in his literature. In fact, to Rousseau, “[m]an is made weak by human society by the way that society is developed”.

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    The two Enlightenment readings that spoke to me and made me think the most, were Hume and Rousseau. Though I do think that all of Hume’s writings have good points to them, the section that I will be focusing on the most is “A Treatise of Human Nature”, due to how relatable it is to my life. I foundThe reason that I find Rousseau thought invoking is because he goes against what I believe and it made me think of why I believe what I believe. The main point of the section “A Treatise of Human Nature” is to make the point that everything that we have derived, “all our reasoning in the conduct of life ” (Hume 198), has come from what we have experienced, that every idea that someone has, even any idea that they themselves don’t understand, comes

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    Adam Smith is obviously interested in what markets, people, and nations do naturally in order to accumulate wealth; hence the word ‘nature’ being in the long title of the book. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, as any decent political philosopher, is also interested in nature and human nature. However, both authors seem to take for granted that their readers would intuitively know what they mean when they use iterations and phrases using the word ‘nature.’ This word is used frequently enough, especially in philosophical texts, that the actual meaning of the word and of phrases containing the word have often been obscured or lost their meaning.

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    Improving Human Society Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Discourse on the Origin of Inequality, examines the problem with modern political institutions. He attempts to demonstrate how the progression of human reason leads to the corruption of human virtue, and the establishment of modern moral inequality. Rousseau argues that the state of nature is more effective for preserving human society, because humans are able to live equally under the natural sentiments of pity and compassion. Rousseau’s argument for human equality would disapprove of the advances in modern day science and technology. He believes that humans would be more compliant in society, if they remained as inarticulate animals or simple savages.

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    Rousseau’s his political philosophies flows through his moral philosophies. In order to understand this better, let me begin by explaining in details both his moral and political philosophies ROUSSEAU’S MORAL PHILOSOPHY- Rousseau was of the one of the very few thinkers who felt that human beings are good by nature but it is the society that corrupts them. He necessarily talks about three components that form the basis of Rousseau’s moral psychology- amour de soi, amour propre and pitie. All these three elements have developed well in Emile and in Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.

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    Locke’s ideas of enlightenment were influential in the creation of the document. Like Locke’s phrase from Two Treatises on Government, “life, liberty, and property,” Jefferson, however, changed this phrase to “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” This phrase is slightly altered by Jefferson and exemplifies Locke’s belief in natural rights implying an individual’s own rights. Locke also believed that when a government were to become destructive, the people have the right to rebel and abolish it. A government that does not protect these rights becomes a tyranny and is determined to be overthrown.

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