The Renaissance was a period of time in Europe from the 14th to the 17th centuries, when there was an increased focus on art and literature. It is often regarded as one of the most influential periods in European history, with its emphasis on individualism, humanism, exploration, and scientific thought. The term "Renaissance" itself means rebirth or revival. During this period, Europeans were exposed to new ideas from around the world through travel and trade networks that had been established across Asia and Africa. This exposure led to an intellectual awakening that allowed for advances in science, philosophy, mathematics, and technology.

With regard to artistry, during the Renaissance era, artists began experimenting with perspective techniques, such as linear perspective, which created a sense of depth within paintings. Artists also developed more naturalistic styles by studying nature closely and depicting it realistically rather than stylistically, as they had done previously. Additionally, painters began utilizing chiaroscuro (light-dark contrast) to create dramatic scenes filled with emotion or drama—something that hadn't been seen before. Alongside painting advancements, sculpture became popular too; several famous sculptors emerged at this time, including Michelangelo, who carved some iconic sculptures such as his statue of David (1504).

Overall, the Renaissance marked a significant shift away from traditional medieval thinking towards a greater appreciation for humanity's potential—both artistically and intellectually—and towards introducing modern concepts about science and technology that would shape our world today.