This theory supports the situational crime prevention theory that crime is a choice and can be deterred through the removal of suitable targets or guardianship. Guardianship can be a security guard, a fence, a password or any other person or item that makes a target unsuitable due to increased chances of being caught or the offense too difficult. Routine activity theory is one of the more popular and accepted theories of
Retribution is punishment inflicted as a form of vengeance. Deterrence is the instillation of fear of punishment in a potential offender. Incapacitation in the context of corrections is setting punishments that prevent crime but not necessarily deterring it. Lastly, rehabilitation in corrections refers to the restoration of someone who is convicted back into society. Currently, the main focus of our corrections system is a crime-control model.
The parole and probation officers should be less strict to offenders who have shown high evidence of reformation (Davis, Bahr, & Ward, 2012). They should, however, appreciate their efforts and try to make them feel wanted which plays a major role in re-integrating the offenders. Fourthly, since both groups are exposed to the offenders and are working towards a common goal, they can jointly carry out research works on ways of enhancing the performance of the re-integration processes (Davis, Bahr, & Ward, 2012). Based on the above analysis, it is evident that if the parole/probation officers worked collaboratively, they would effectively carry out the re-integration process and therefore, in the long run, reduce the number and level of crimes in the
I am having dubious feelings for the success of the geomapping of offender residences idea. The GIS applications enable the crime agencies and the society and as a result, they would be having more knowledge on criminals and statistics and visual depiction serve as a good benchmark for mapping crime and criminal preferred location. Due to which, in my judgment, sex offenders will look for isolated places due to the presence of the geomapping implementation. But, this in turn, would also be beneficial for the criminals to carry out crime activities within least mapped areas. Also, technology and managerial efforts’ failures are conceivable and it can be crucial in certain circumstances.
It also lends itself to testing, the methods of the therapy can be tested and assessed as to how effective the techniques are and can therefore also be improved upon if found lacking. This therapy has been very successful in treating depression and moderately successful in treating anxiety problems. However some do argue that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy is too narrow in scope and that it needs to focus more on other areas of human functioning as well, and not just thought and action. The therapy does also hold ethical concerns, as it can at times be forceful in its directive approach, such as the one employed by Ellis when practicing Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy was however designed to help individuals, whether in a group setting or during individual counselling, to untangle their thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and in that respect it has been effective and reliable.
One of these people were Robert Agnew who thought that strain theory could be very important in explaining crime and deviance that happens but that it needed to be in a different context so that it was not tied to social class or cultural variables, but have it focus more on norms according to society. “In sum, we would expect certain strains to affect crime in all or most societies, while the effect of other strains may differ across societies. A general strain theory that explains differences in criminal offending will systematically list all of those strains that function as “extreme stressors,” as well as those societal factors that affect the magnitude of given strains, the interpretation of such strains (e.g., their perceived magnitude and injustice), and the likelihood of criminal coping”(Sigfusdottir & Kristjansson , 2012).The general strain theory have 3 categories of strains according to Agnew which are the inability to achieve positively valued goals ,the removal or the threat to remove positively valued stimuli and to present a threat to one with noxious or negatively valued stimuli.The inability to achieve positively valued goals are difference between the expectation influenced by factors such as social class
The punishment received by juveniles however, must be proportionate to the seriousness of the crime. The crime control model emphasizes punishment as the remedy for misbehavior. This model is believed beneficial because offenders are taught not to commit further crimes. The balanced and restorative
Focus on the offenders who pose a greater threat of continuing crime. Time should be spent on higher risk offenders versus spending time trying to focus treatment on lower risk offenders.There are two types of offenders, acute and stable. An acute risk factor means they can change quickly and stable means they take longer to change. Intensive treatment for lower risk offenders can cause pro-social disruption, more violations, and can lead to anti-social activity. Latessa explains how we shouldn't treat offenders for thing that do not link to them.
However, medication may be very helpful and useful for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, therapy proves to be just as effective. The purpose therapy is to reduce anxiety by disrupting and eradicating beliefs or behaviors that kept maintaining the anxiety disorder. Therapy has two balances . The balance helps people change thinking patterns that prevent them from conquering` their
Deterrence can be gained through just desert/retribution; individuals may be deterred after if our correctional system takes on a just desert mindset of for “stubborn offenders”. Deterrence along with the other theoretical theories can help change how we view our correctional system. With deterrence as the face of the operation, the other theories can assist in achieving the main goal of lowering the crime rate. These theories aren’t perfect but together they can be a power house within our justice system. Since the beginning of this course, my idea on our correctional system has changed tremendously.
Although there are many types of mental health professionals, one of the most important things to consider when choosing a therapist is your connection with this person. The right therapist will be a caring and supportive with you in your depression treatment and recovery. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is one of the most effective ways someone suffering from depression can choose in order to feel better. There are many different ways that CBT uses in order to deal with patients with
Essentially, the clinician teaches their patients suffering from PTSD how to replace unreasonable thought patterns with healthy, coherent ones. At the core of this talk-therapy method is learning how to avoid reacting in a purely emotional manner (which is another debilitating symptom of PTSD) and replacing it with self-awareness, self-acceptance and self-reliance. CBT is particularly effective with PTSD clients because it helps the client identify their irrational and maladaptive dogmas so they can consciously replace them with realistic beliefs. Since a human’s mind has a resilient propensity to lock onto familiar notions and remain unchanged despite the negative or stagnant outcomes of PTSD, CBT assertively addresses this phenomena by having the client complete homework assignments, partake in role playing exercises and actively tackle their own distressing thoughts. While this therapeutic
In an ideal world there should be treatment facility that deals with sex offenders alone and their potential substance abuse. This way there is a chance for the offender to get the help they need and will be guaranteed a place for treatment and they will not be turned away. There should also be a way during treatment that allows them to find resources to “win back” others found in their family and the community. We believe that the best addiction model that fits sex offenders is the biopsychosocial model because the substance abuse could be an innate part of the genetic make-up, it could also have been a way to deal with past issues or memories; to relieve psychological pain. Finally the abuse could also be from the social aspect of the model because substance abuse is a fairly common thing most are surrounded by on a daily basis, and that could be seen as “if everyone else can do it, then I can do
Taking this first step in reconciliation allows for a face to face encounter where restorative dialogue can occur between the victim and the offender in a genuine interaction (Dancig-Rosenberg and Galt, 2013). Furthermore, this process requires that the offender take explicit responsibility for the actions committed while listening and responding to the victim affected by their crime so as to present their own approach for repairing the damage caused (Dancig-Rosenberg and Galt, 2013). This process promotes honest dialogue and an empowering experience for the victim as they feel that their needs are heard and feelings expressed (Dancig-Rosenberg and Galt, 2013). In all, restorative justice benefits the victim, the offender and the community as community ties are strengthened while the process of the restorative approach discourages the offender from committing further crimes through the use of an open-minded and rehabilitative process (Dancig-Rosenberg and Galt,