Enicostema Phytochemical Analysis

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2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Phytochemical evaluation of Enicostemma littorale Blume
2.1.1.1 PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Phytochemistry is concerned mainly with a wide variety of secondary metabolites which is biosynthesized by plants. The plant kingdom represents a broad spectrum of treasure house of bioactive compounds. A best medicine is the sum of their active constituents. The beneficial therapeutic and physiological effects of a plant depend on the combination of secondary metabolites present in the plant. The phytochemical properties of plant compounds are verified with the traditional uses of the plants. In addition, phytochemical are the plant secondary metabolites which are not directly involved in the growth and development of a plant but serve as
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It grows throughout India and more frequently near the sea and grows up to 1.5 feet height, simple or branched at the base. It is called as Chota-kirayat or Chota chirayata in Hindi, Mamejavo in gujarati, Nagajivha in Bengali and Vellarugu or Vallari in Tamil, Vallari in malayalam, White head in English, Chikka chiraayuta in Kanada, Nalaguli in Telugu, Mamajjakah in Sanskrit and Kaviyatu in Hindustani [20].

2.2.1.2 Taxonomical status
The taxonomic position of Enicostemma littorale Blume is as follows
Kingdom: Plantae
Subdivision: Angiospermae
Class:
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Qualitative analysis of Enicostemma littorale Blume had shown the presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthroquinones and sterols [34]. A new flavone C-glucoside named as verticilliside was isolated for the first time from this species [35]. Swertiamarin was isolated from the green viscous mass obtained from an alcoholic extract of the drug treated with ether followed by ethyl acetate [36,37]. Flavonoids and xanthones were found to be present in this plant. Six phenolic acids viz: vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were also found [38]. Seven flavonoids were isolated from alcoholic extract and their structures were identified as apigenin, genkwanin, isovitexin, swertisin, saponarin, 5-O-glucosylswertisin and 5-O-glucosylisoswertisin [39]. Methanol extract of E.littorale was found to contain different aminoacids like L-glutamic acid, tryptophan, alanine, serine, aspartic acid, L-proline, L-tyrosine, threonine, phenyl alanine, L histidine monohydrochloride, methionine, iso leucine, L-arginine monohydrochloride, DOPA, L-glycine, 2-amino butyric acid and valine [40].
In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is being used as antiinflammatory, digestive, thermogenic and liver tonic and used to treat diabetes mellitus, rheumatism abdominal ulcers, hernia, swelling, itches and insect

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