Abstract The present investigation was carried out to analyze the active constituents present in aerial parts (dry seeds) of Croton bonplandianum Baill (Euphorbiaceae) for by GC-MS analysis. The presence of phytochemical compounds was screened by qualitative method. Totally 4 bioactive Phytochemical compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract of Croton species, the components were identified by comparing their relation indices and mass spectra Fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS-Computer library and also form the published literatures. The prevailing compounds were Squalene, (9Z,12Z)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, methyl 12-oxo-octadec-9-enoate -, and 11,14,17-octadecatrienoate. The research reveals the potential of hexane
ABSTRACT Metabolites are molecular substances formed during various metabolic reactions, can be categorized as primary or secondary depending on their consequent functions. Primary metabolites have specific functions and are essential to the plants growth and survival. In turn secondary metabolites although important but are not essential for the plants’ growth but have a very huge role in upbringing of the plant. Consequently plants produce secondary metabolites with outstanding functions in defense against predators and microbial pathogens depending on their toxic nature and repellence to herbivores and microbes. They are involved in defense against varieties of various stresses.
Synthesis of flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthocynidins: Flavonoids are coloured compounds imparting colours ranging from red, yellow, scarlet, violet, and blue and so on. There are more than 5000 different known flavonoids. Flavonoids are C15 aglycone skeletons in the arrangement C6-C3-C6 with two aromatic rings connected by a three-carbon bridge. Interestingly, this structure originates of two separate biosynthetic pathways. The bridge and one aromatic ring (ring B) is founded by a phenyl¬propanoid unit biosynthesized from p-coumaryl-CoA (refer formation of p-coumaryl CoA from Phe; above).
The chemistry of heterocycles compounds is one of the most complex branches of chemistry. It is equally interesting for its theoretical implication for the diversity of its synthetic procedure and for the physiological and industrial significance. Synthetic heterocycles chemistry has influenced almost every place of human life and the heterocycles compounds have found their application in diverse fields medicine, agriculture, polymer, and various industries. Synthetic heterocycles drugs are used as Hypnotics, Anticonvulsants, Antiseptics, Antineoplastics, Antiviral, Antihistaminic, Anti-tumor etc. Majority of the large number of drugs being introduces in pharmacopeias every year are heterocycles
Antibiotics tested included: gentamicin, teicoplanin, rifampicin, doxycycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, linezolid and mupirocin. 2.3.2. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by Etest Isolates resistant to cefoxitin were submitted to the Etest () to determine the sensitivity to vancomycin. S. aureus ATCC 29213 was used as the quality control in each set of tests. Isolates showing inhibition zones of 30 μg cefoxitin (Oxoid, Cambridge, UK) disk, and that were positive for mecA gene by PCR, were characterized as MRSA.
Tannins Tannins are polyphenolic compounds that are broadly categorized into two major groups: 1. Condensed tannins, or proanthocyanidins, consisting of oligomers of two or more flavan-3-ols, such as catechin, epicatechin, or the corresponding gallocatechin. 2. Hydrolysable tannins, consisting of a central core of carbohydrate to which phenolic carboxylic acids are bound by ester linkage. Tannins have a very high affinity for proteins and form protein-tannin complexes.
Phytochemists have been extremely captivated in studying plants with the sole intent of isolating novel active compounds in order to substitute the synthetic drugs that are presently on the market, providing a more natural source of drugs for modern medicine (Talib and Mahasneh, 2010). Some of the African indigenous plant species have been subjects of scientific screening in order to find potential natural sources of pharmacological drugs (Shai et al., 2008). The extracts collected from various parts of medicinal plants possess a variety of medicinal properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activity and anti-cancer activity (Mahesh and Satish, 2008). There exists specialised structures on plant surfaces that synthesise, accumulate and secrete bioactive compounds (Svoboda and Svoboda, 2000). Research on plants is essential to not only isolate novel compounds but to also understand their secretory structures and their purpose in relation to the secretion of such compounds.
The aim of this work was to identify, for the first time, the phenolic compounds present in the methanolic extracts from Pistacia lentiscus fruits, using the QTOF-ESI-MS/MS and to determine their contents in total phenolic compounds and in flavonoids, based on spectrophotometric
Palmitic (C16), stearic (C18:0), oleic cis-9- (C18:1) and linoleic cis-9, cis-12- (C18:2) are the most commonly presence. Other fatty acids such as palmitoleic (C16:1), arichidic (C18:1), linolenic (C18:3) and octadecatetraonic (C18:4) also found in the samples. Whereas lauric (C12:0) in coconut, babassu, bay laurel leaf, Cuphea Giscosissima with 48.8%, 48%, 26.5% and 4.81% WT respectively. For myristoleic (C14:1) and eicosenoic (C20:1), both are presence only in beef tallow, choice white, poultry fat and yellow grease except camelina oil that presence only eicosenoic (C20:1) while none of myristoleic (C14:1) is found. While behnic (C22:0), erucle (C22:1) and lignoceric (C24:1) are found in relative low amount detected.
Essential oils of six Cymbopogon citrates were tested against dermatophytes, namely, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum sp., Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The essential oil of Lantana camara showed higher activity against all dermatophytes as compared to other test oils (Lachoria et al., 2000). Medicinal plants from South India were tested for antidrermatophytic activity against four isolated species of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Ethanol extract was found to be effective than water extract against T.rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (Vaijayanthimala et al., 2004). Antidermatophytic activity of methonolic leaf extract of Pistia scleratus was tested against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum nanum, Epidermatophytes floccosum.