Despite King’s heavy involvement in the Montgomery Bus Boycott, among other things, another leader that participated in the American civil rights movement, seen to implement meaningful change is Rosa Parks. Parks can be seen as the spark that ignited such a move that has had a heavy impact on the American Civil rights movement. During the 1950’s African Americans were still required to sit in the back half of the Montgomery, Alabama city buses, while also giving up their seats to caucasian riders if seats were full. However, on December 1st of 1955 was when Parks, commuting from home, decided to sit in the front row of the “colored section”, being the only one to refuse to vacate her seat for a Caucasian passenger when asked to do so by the
Many white people believed “black children had no right to attend Central High” (Walker 9). Melba; a second black student, remembers getting chased by an angry white mob. Her mother “handed her the car keys and told her to leave without her if she had to” (Walker
with fear as the reason for her relative fearlessness in deciding to appeal her conviction during the bus boycott. Four days after the Rosa Parks arrest African Americans boycotted the Montgomery bus. In the year of the boycott, Rosa Parks traveled around the world raising awareness and funds for the movement (boycott). Also she is called the mother of the civil rights movement. Problems were that throughout her childhood because of her appearance she was a target for racial discrimination (Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race.).
These laws included regulations on public restrooms, drinking fountains, education, and public transportation. Rosa Parks is an example of how unfair African-Americans were treated in the United States, and her fight in battles such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Civil Rights Movement drove a plethora of others to join her side to change the way “colored people” were seen in America. Even as a child, Rosa Parks was met with memories of prejudices against black people. “In one experience, Rosa’s grandfather stood in front of their house with a shotgun while Ku Klux Klan members marched down the street,”(“Rosa Parks Biography,” 2018). It was a sad memory for her knowing
Mary Beth Tinker was a 13-year-old junior high school student in December 1965 when she and a group of students decided to wear black armbands to school to protest the war in Vietnam. The school board got wind of the protest and passed a preemptive ban. When Mary Beth arrived at school on December 16, she was asked to remove the armband. When she refused, she was sent home. Four other students were suspended, including her brother John Tinker and Chris Eckhardt.
 The first and perhaps the most important event that gave legitimacy to the civil rights movement in the United States occurred in December of 1955. This event, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, was a protest against the policy of mandated racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. This boycott lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks refused to give up her set to a white passenger, until December 20, 1956 when a Supreme Court Ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect and outlawed segregation on public transportation. This Supreme Court ruling marked the first of many successes of the Civil Rights Movement. However, there was still much work to be done not only in the Black Belt region of Alabama, but nationwide.
The Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement provided a foundation for student activism on college campuses. The Civil Rights Movement (1950s-1960s) was a movement mainly in the American South, where segregation, discrimination, and injustices against African American communities were prominent. Segregation was one of the main issues that drove the movement and its importance to the movement could be highlighted by the case Brown vs. Board of Education. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against segregated facilities in Brown Vs. Board of Education in 1954 by stating that separate educational facilities for students of color were unconstitutional. The decision to desegregate educational facilities received immediate resistance from the white community.
When he used Arkansas National Guardsman to ban the enrollment of LRN who has been ordered by a federal judge to desegregate the Little Rock Central High School, he became the national symbol of racial segregation. ▲ Orval Faubus's speech on school integration (1958) (unknown, Blackpast, unknown) In this source, it's clear that Faubus didn't like black students attending Little Rock Central School Arkansas governor Faubus's resistance to desegregation resulted the Little Rock crisis. Faubus also began to examine the possibility of establishing multi-racial schools and desegregated state buses and public transportation. Journalist Harry Ashmore depicted Orval Faubus's fight over Little Rock Central High School in a certain perspective; he said "Faubus used the guard to keep blacks out of Central High School because he was frustrated by the success his political opponents were having in using segregationist rhetoric to arouse white voters". (unknown, Wikipedia, unknown) On May 27, 1958 Ernest Green Became the first to graduate Little Rock Central High school.
The “Plessy V. Ferguson” case is a very important case in U.S. history and U.S. civil rights, as it legalized segregation for decades. Homer Plessy appeared to a white man living a Louisiana, but he was ⅛ black, which was considered black in Louisiana. When Plessy tried to board a “whites only” railroad car in protest of Louisiana's “Separate Car Act” that legally separated train cars, he was arrested when he refused to move to colored car on the train. Once the case went through both district and state courts, it moved up to the U.S. Supreme Court where Plessy and his attorney argued that the law ostracized the colored people from the white, which would be unconstitutional. This was known as the “Plessy V. Ferguson” case.
An example of this is the Morse v. Frederick case. This case all started when Joseph Frederick and some of his friends held up a banner at a school-supervised event to see the Olympic torch passed through their town. The banner read ‘Bong Hits 4 Jesus” and was largely written on a fourteen foot banner. The Principle, Deborah Morse, preceded to ask the students to take down the banner because it was against one of their school policies. That