In the letter to Menoeceus, Epicurus begins by saying that happiness and death play hand-in-hand. Epicurus also states that there are gods, but they are not around to be concerned with humane problems. I will argue that Epicurus is right about happiness coming from pleasure and that death is nothing to fear, however I will also argue that Epicurus is wrong about the gods not existing to maintain humanity. Epicurus believed that happiness and death go hand-in-hand because happiness and death both form sensations. It is believed that once someone dies, they will live on infinitely due to immortality, and with death comes happiness (Epicurus 233). Epicurus says there are three types of pleasures; groundless, natural but unnecessary, and natural but necessary. He believes that groundless pleasures should be eliminated and natural unnecessary pleasures should be used cautiously (Epicurus 234). “The gods exist; but it is impious to accept the common beliefs about them. They have no concern with men” (Epicurus 232). Epicurus is stating that he believes the gods do not have anything to do with humans because the gods do not notice humans directly. This is due to him believing that there is not an afterlife with the gods. “The gods do indeed exist, for our perception of them is clear; but they are not such as the crowd imagines them to be...” (Epicurus 232). He then goes on to explain that the gods are not here for humans because they are conceited. They will only socialize
Death is an inevitable topic that at some point in time everyone will experience. Some people spend their lifetime worrying about death and dying, and others rely on their faith and relish in the thought that after fulfilling their life on Earth, they will live eternally in Heaven. Neither Epicurus nor Feldman believe in life after death, but this is where their similarities end, as Epicurus regards that even without an afterlife, death is not something we should worry about, whereas Feldman is concerned with the harm death brings upon us. Epicurus’s argument is that my death is not a harm to me.
One quote deserves particular attention that is shown , when zooey entered Buddy and Seymour’s childhood room like it was a shrine, which was Epictetus’s quote “Concerning the Gods, there are those who deny the very existence of the Godhead; others say that it exists, but neither bestirs nor concerns itself not has forethought far anything. A third party attribute to it existence and forethought, but only for great and heavenly matters, not for anything that is on earth. A fourth party admit things on earth as well as in heaven, but only in
“Marcus says, for example, that if we believe that pleasure is good and pain evil, then we will be resentful of the pleasures enjoyed by the vicious and the pains suffered by the virtuous. And if we are resentful of what happens, we will be finding fault with Nature and will be impious (ix.1.3)” (Kamtekar). Epictetus was the most well-known Stoic during the time of Marcus Aurelius. “If Marcus felt
The Odyssey of Homer is about the hero Odysseus who starts an adventure to return to his home and kill the suitors who woo his wife and squander his wealth. Meanwhile, his son Telemachus searches for news of his father from his father's friends, and teams up with his father to kill the suitors. All the suitors are killed and Athena protects Odysseus and Telemachus from the suitors' parents. Honor and pride are the most important aspects of life and hubris leads to destruction. Honor and pride are considered important and must be defended.
Stoicism was an influential philosophic outlook on existence. It essentially taught its adherents to find and follow the divine will of the universe, which was embodied in nature. Stoicism is characterized by acceptance of nature or, in other words, acceptance of things beyond one’s own power, while seeking self refinement. Epictetus was a prominent Stoic in the 2nd century CE, who focused his teachings on ethics (“Epictetus (55–135 C.E.)”). Among his Moral Discourses, he teaches how Stoics treat and feel about death.
Throughout this doctrine Epictetus describes how to basically rationalize emotions or thoughts which have negative connotations towards your mental well-being. This work seemed to be greatly influenced by Socrates such as how in chapter fifty one Epictetus writes, “ This is how Socrates attained perfection, by paying attention to nothing but reason in everything he encountered.” (Epictetus 251) This quote is important because of how it pertains to Epictetus’s work. Throughout he continually mentions how somethings are in our power and others are not.
-Homer, The Iliad Homer wrote that gods envy the mortals because of the above quote. Unlike the gods who never dies, we have to make everyday of our lives memorable because we never no when will be our last day here on earth. We were born to die yet we strive to live. We always wanted to leave a legacy that serves as an inspiration to others. All we want is a legacy that never fades away and can be pass in every generation.
For epicureans, in order to achieve happiness, pleasure should be something is added or maximize contrast to the subtraction of pain. Therefore, pleasure is equal to be free from pain, the greatest pleasure will produce less pain. Pleasure reaches its limits in the removal of all pain, when pleasure is present there is no pain of body or mind. Illness of a long duration such as a chronic pain, does not last long, they even permit an access of pleasure over pain in the body. The ultimate good in life is pleasure for Epicureans.
Stoics believed that human beings by nature had some good inside of them. Musonius was also following along with the Stoic’s theory regarding the fact that every human was given a part of the divine reason and they were all born with a disposition towards virtue. Seneca also stated that, “No man, indeed, is good without God- is any one capable of rising above fortune unless he has help from God?” Without having God in your life, our virtue is not present, but once we have God present in our lives, we have our virtue once again.
The history of Stoicism began in antiquity Rome and Greece. Stoicism was one of the most prominent schools of philosophy in ancient times. Its influence continues still today. Stoicism originated around 300B.C.E. in Athens and was founded by Zeno of Citium. The e-book, Stoicism, written by John Sellers, he says, “according to ancient biographical tradition, Zeno traveled to Athens in his twenties, while visiting a bookstall he discovered a copy of Xenophon’s Memorabilia of Socrates”, this began his philosophical education.
lutarch’s Life of Aristides contains a compelling aside about the perfectibility of a leader. What he calls the “divine nature” of a great man has three attributes: power, virtue, and immortality. Of these, virtue is the most important; prestige must flow from it primarily, rather than from the uncertain reservoirs of violence or power. Continuing in this vein, he notes: So when we consider the three sentiments, admiration, fear, and reverence, which divinity inspires among mankind, we find that men appear to admire the gods and think them blessed because they are immortal and unchangeable…
He was also a Roman emperor. He died of the plague. His only work is the meditations or Writings to himself, written in the midst of the Parthian war. His Meditations laid in their practical and aphoristic Stoic representing an example of a living ethic, teaching closer to religion than to philosophic speculation. E.g. the happiness of your life depends on the quality of your thought; therefore, make sure that you do not entertain unsuitable notions to virtue and reasonable nature.