Appointed in 1641 by the crown, Sir William Berkeley governed Virginia for most of the following 35 years. He implemented policies that favored the large planters and used dictatorial powers to govern on their behalf. For 15 years, beginning in 1661, Berkeley refused to allow any new election to the assembly, perpetuating his cronies in power. The right to vote was a crucial part of democracy for the colonists, for it meant that the person they elected was the person they felt most responsible to support them. Unfortunately, Berkeley’s government was unresponsive to the colonist’s needs and also denied them social equality. Their salaries came from unbearable taxes levied on the common planter. Berkeley’s favorites also received disproportionate shares in grants of land and licenses to trade with the Indians (Taylor …show more content…
In July 1676, Bacon issued the Declaration of the People of Virginia, a list of complaints against Berkeley. Berkeley tried to rally public support by holding new assembly elections and extending the vote to all freemen, but the new assembly went against the governor, instead passing laws to make government more responsive to the common people and to end greedy office holding (Nash 59). In September 1676, Bacon’s men drove the governor and his supporters across Chesapeake Bay to refuge on the eastern shore and burned Jamestown to the ground to discourage their return. A few weeks later, Bacon suddenly died of dysentery, leaving the movement leaderless. Soon thereafter, an English naval squadron arrived to restore order (Garraty 43). Berkeley hanged 23 rebel leaders without giving them a trial. Even so, Bacon’s Rebellion and the Declaration of the People set a precedent for Americans to fight for equality and a more responsive government. Fear of another such uprising prompted the hardening of racial lines as the region became committed to black
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In this document Bacon declares himself General by the consent of the people and asserts that Governor Sir William Berkeley and his supporters have used their power to commit crimes against the people of Virginia and the English Crown. The document cites eight grievances related to unjust taxes, inadequate protection from the Indians, and government corruption. Bacon calls for the immediate surrender or capture of Berkeley and 23
Bacon’s followers into rebellion. Frances Berkeley’s statement was witnessed and signed by Sir William, Sir Henry Chicheley, a member of the Council of State, the Reverend John Clough, rector of James City Parish, and Captain James Crews. The latter’s presence at Green Spring is puzzling.19 Crews had urged Bacon to take the illegal action of leading armed men against the Indians without a commission from Berkeley. He was executed at Green Spring in January 1677 for his part in the rebellion. Crews may have visited the Berkeleys after his election to the June Assembly, 1676, perhaps to try and bring about some resolution of the struggle between Berkeley and Bacon.
Though they came from the same origin, the New England and Chesapeake Regions both separated, and with different goals for each colony. By the 1700s the Chesapeake and New England regions were distinctively different even though both were made from English colonies based on, the people whom settled the land, the governing goals and the religions brought to the new land. After arriving in the New World, the New England and Chesapeake Colonies began to thrive, but from ideas that came from very different people. Though both were trying to escape religious persecution, the differences in the people whom settled the land is noticeable.
At the dawn of the 1770s, American colonial resentment of the British Parliament in London had been steadily increasing for some time. Retaliating in 1766, Parliament issued the Declaratory Act which repealed most taxes except issued a reinforcement of Parliament’s supremacy. In a fascinating exchange, we see that the Parliament identifies and responds to the colonists main claim; Parliament had no right to directly tax colonists who had no representation in Parliament itself. By asserting Parliamentary supremacy while simultaneously repealing the Stamp Act and scaling back the Sugar Act, Parliament essentially established the hill it would die on, that being its legitimacy. With the stage set for colonial conflict in the 1770s, all but one
In Bacon’s “Manifesto” where he justifies his rebellion against Governor Berkeley, he says, “Let truth be bold and all the world know the real foundations of pretended guilt… Let us trace… [the] men in authority and favor to whose hands the dispensation of the countr[y’s] wealth has been committed.” (Document H) All-in-all, Bacon was dissatisfied with Governor
Bacon’s Rebellion is well known to students of colonial America, although no-one has succeeded in writing a convincing account of it. The first question historians asked was who was responsible for the widespread anarchy that followed the breakdown of government authority in the colony between 1676 and 1677. One historian attributes the rebellion to Nathaniel Bacon, and describes Governor Berkeley as a man doing his best to implement sensible policies. Another sees the Rebellion as prefiguring the American Revolution, with Bacon as an early George Washington, already defying British authority.
Berkeley was having to face a real rebel, in the state of desperation, he told Nathaniel Bacon that if he gave himself up, he could face trial in England. However, the House of Burgesses disagreed and said that Nathaniel Bacon had to beg to the Governor, Berkeley himself, for forgiveness. Nathaniel Bacon was then elected into the House of Burgesses by some landowners. For the reason of that election he went to a assembly in June 1676, which marks history because of what he did on this historic day. (McCulley, 1987)
In 1676 an uprising occurred known as Bacon’s Rebellion. This Rebellion was lead by Nathaniel Bacon. Virginians who resented Governor William Berkley’s friendly policies towards the Native Americans rose against him by joining the rebellion. “.. For then having expressly countermanded and sent back our army by passing his word for the peaceable demeanor of the said Indians, who immediately prosecuted their evil intentions, committing horrid murders and robberies in all places, being protected by the said engagement and word past of him the said Sir William Berkeley.” (Bacon’s Rebellion: The Declaration)
The New Englanders took religion seriously, making unitary laws according to Puritan standards. John Winthrop, later chosen as the first Massachusetts Bay Colony governor, was seeking religious freedom. Wishing to inspire the colonists to dwell in brotherly unity, he summoned them together to remind them “that if we [colonists] shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause Him to withdraw His present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world.” On the other hand, those in the Chesapeake region came for the wealth that America promised. They were there to become prosperous or die trying.
They went on a rampage and fell murderously upon the Indians. Bacon suddenly dies of disease. Berkeley crushed the rebellion with brutally hanging more than twenty of the rebels (Document B). Later on both Virginia and Maryland employed the “headright” system to encourage the importation of servant workers (Document C). Under its terms,
The result of the Bacon’s Rebellion made a establishment of hierarchies based on class, but hidden by race. The Bacon’s Rebellion had to do with the environment because there was a significant deal of social mobility, but this gave the colonist anxiety. The colonists faced lack of stability and an uncertain future, plus a chance of social mobility. Therefore, this became a conflict as individuals fought for nature's
Reading this chapter develops a unified analytical fundamentals, delineation on and expanding the existing comprehension on American Indian economies and property rights. A question lingers in the air about what really determines whether or not an economy is rich or poor? What made the European Americans think they were smarter than the Indians? It is clear that our people supported themselves for thousands of years. Could you believe that in the 1600s the Native Americans in the New England area produced 65 percent of their food from agriculture.
Forced Founder’s, written by Woody Holton, sheds new light on one of the best-known events in American History. Holton challenges the traditional narrative of the great land-owning elite leading the revolutionary war. He does not believe it was one single factor but in fact, a web of influences that pushed Virginia into the war of independence. Holton’s main argument consists of the idea that the Indians, merchants, slaves, and debtors helped propel free Virginians into the independence movement. Virginia’s gentry were joining their peers in declaring independence from Britain in response to grassroots rebellions against their own rule.
This led to Bacon’s Rebellion, a gang of impoverished and landless former servants attacked the capital of the colony and plundered the homes of the wealthy. Both colonies constituted a successful form of government; however, both governments were carried out in dissimilar ways. The establishment of two primitive English colonies, Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay Colony had many homogeneous attributes and differences. Both had an adequate relationship with the Native Americans that deteriorated and
This was mostly because of the conflicts between the Jamestown settlers and the Indians. There was also a need to help the planters because of the