Incarceration In Prison

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Incarceration refers to the constitutional deprivation of an offender the capacity to commit crimes by detaining them in prisons. The United States has the highest incarceration rate of any free nation. The U.S incarcerates five times more people than the United Kingdom, nine times more than Germany and twelve times more than Japan (Collier, 2014, p.56). Incarceration has several objectives. One of these is to keep persons suspected of committing a crime under secure control before a court of competent jurisdiction determines whether they are guilty or innocent. Incarceration also punishes offenders by depriving them of their liberty once the court of law has convicted. Moreover, incarceration deters criminals from committing further crimes (Linh et al., 2010) The increase in prison populations has led to overcrowding and overstretching of these prisons beyond capacity, in the process creating dangerous and inhumane conditions. In 2006, forty out of fifty states in the United States were operating prisons at 90 percent capacity or more with twenty-three of these states operating at over 100 percent capacity (Blumstein & Piquero, 2007, p.680). Moreover, the overcrowding in prisons has resulted in the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. It presents a major challenge for correctional administrators and health service providers.
States have embarked on building new prisons to cater for the increasing number of prisoners.

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